How to format your references using the Modeling Earth Systems and Environment citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Modeling Earth Systems and Environment. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Cohen-Cory S (2002) The developing synapse: construction and modulation of synaptic structures and circuits. Science 298:770–776
A journal article with 2 authors
Schwab ME, Buchli AD (2012) Drug research: plug the real brain drain. Nature 483:267–268
A journal article with 3 authors
Reimand J, Wagih O, Bader GD (2013) The mutational landscape of phosphorylation signaling in cancer. Sci Rep 3:2651
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Porter EA, Wang X, Lee HS, et al (2000) Non-haemolytic beta-amino-acid oligomers. Nature 404:565

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
McCallum H (2008) Population Parameters: Estimation for Ecological Models. Blackwell Science Ltd, Oxford, UK
An edited book
Rossi E (2016) Assessing Relative Valuation in Equity Markets: Bridging Research and Practice. Palgrave Macmillan UK, London
A chapter in an edited book
Hansson T, Åkerman G, Tjärnlund U, et al (2007) Biotoxicity measurements: the nanoinjection technique. In: Caiti A (ed) Buried Waste in the Seabed—Acoustic Imaging and Bio-toxicity: Results from the European SITAR Project. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 31–38

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Modeling Earth Systems and Environment.

Blog post
Davis J (2016) World’s Oldest Water Discovered 3 Kilometers Underground. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1998) Federal Documents in Languages Other Than English Published and Distributed in Calendar Years 1995-1997. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
McCain AK (2015) Influence of market setting and time of purchase on counts of aerobic bacteria, Escherichia coli, and coliform and prevalence of Salmonella and Listeria in beef, pork, and chicken in Vietnam. Doctoral dissertation, Mississippi State University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Brantley B (2017) Summoning the Dead With Sacred Coca-Cola. New York Times C1

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Cohen-Cory 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Cohen-Cory 2002; Schwab and Buchli 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Schwab and Buchli 2012)
  • Three or more authors: (Porter et al. 2000)

About the journal

Full journal titleModeling Earth Systems and Environment
AbbreviationModel. Earth Syst. Environ.
ISSN (print)2363-6203
ISSN (online)2363-6211
Scope

Other styles