How to format your references using the Modeling Earth Systems and Environment citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Modeling Earth Systems and Environment. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Friedman A (2014) Neuroscience. Jump-starting natural resilience reverses stress susceptibility. Science 346:555
A journal article with 2 authors
Jenuwein T, Allis CD (2001) Translating the histone code. Science 293:1074–1080
A journal article with 3 authors
Spencer TJ, Osborn T, Kohl PA (2008) Materials science. High-frequency chip connections. Science 320:756–757
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Pietzsch O, Kubetzka A, Bode M, Wiesendanger R (2001) Observation of magnetic hysteresis at the nanometer scale by spin-polarized scanning tunneling spectroscopy. Science 292:2053–2056

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Declerck P (2012) Discrete Event Systems in Dioid Algebra and Conventional Algebra. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ USA
An edited book
Murthy DNP (2006) Warranty Management and Product Manufacture. Springer, London
A chapter in an edited book
Chruszcz-Lipska K, Blanch EW (2014) Raman Optical Activity of Biological Samples. In: Baranska M (ed) Optical Spectroscopy and Computational Methods in Biology and Medicine. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, pp 61–81

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Modeling Earth Systems and Environment.

Blog post
Carpineti A (2016) Mars Has Gigantic Seasonal Dust Storms. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1994) Highway Safety: Factors Affecting Involvement in Vehicle Crashes. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Clément V (2017) From Adaptation to Transformation: A Resilience Perspective on Organizational Responses to Ecological Adversity. Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Scott M (2017) Google Is Fined $2.7 Billion for Crowding Out European Rivals. New York Times B1

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Friedman 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Jenuwein and Allis 2001; Friedman 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Jenuwein and Allis 2001)
  • Three or more authors: (Pietzsch et al. 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleModeling Earth Systems and Environment
AbbreviationModel. Earth Syst. Environ.
ISSN (print)2363-6203
ISSN (online)2363-6211

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