How to format your references using the Modeling Earth Systems and Environment citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Modeling Earth Systems and Environment. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Jiggins CD (2014) Evolutionary biology: Radiating genomes. Nature 513:318–319
A journal article with 2 authors
Nelson WJ, Nusse R (2004) Convergence of Wnt, beta-catenin, and cadherin pathways. Science 303:1483–1487
A journal article with 3 authors
Dubilier N, McFall-Ngai M, Zhao L (2015) Microbiology: Create a global microbiome effort. Nature 526:631–634
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Ma Y, Szostkiewicz I, Korte A, et al (2009) Regulators of PP2C phosphatase activity function as abscisic acid sensors. Science 324:1064–1068

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Thompson GR (2011) Reading the American Novel 1865-1914. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK
An edited book
Oestreicher A, Hammer M (eds) (2014) Taxation of Income from Domestic and Cross-border Collective Investment: A Qualitative and Quantitative Comparison. Springer International Publishing, Cham
A chapter in an edited book
Higuchi Y, Hisamatsu T (2016) Light Acts as a Signal for Regulation of Growth and Development. In: Kozai T, Fujiwara K, Runkle ES (eds) LED Lighting for Urban Agriculture. Springer, Singapore, pp 57–73

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Modeling Earth Systems and Environment.

Blog post
Andrews R (2016) What Would Happen If Every Single Volcano In The World Erupted At Once? In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1980) The Post-Implementation Review. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Mahan CP (2010) First to the finish line: A case study of first generation baccalaureate degree completers in the University of Maryland Student Support Services program. Doctoral dissertation, University of Maryland, College Park

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Oestreich JR (2016) Colliding Double Hits of Mozart. New York Times C4

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Jiggins 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Nelson and Nusse 2004; Jiggins 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Nelson and Nusse 2004)
  • Three or more authors: (Ma et al. 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleModeling Earth Systems and Environment
AbbreviationModel. Earth Syst. Environ.
ISSN (print)2363-6203
ISSN (online)2363-6211

Other styles