How to format your references using the Modeling Earth Systems and Environment citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Modeling Earth Systems and Environment. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Vogel G (2000) DEVELOPMENTAL BIOLOGY: Brain Cells Turning Over a New Leaf. Science 289:1666a
A journal article with 2 authors
Day M, Morris RG (2001) Memory consolidation and NMDA receptors: discrepancy between genetic and pharmacological approaches. Science 293:755
A journal article with 3 authors
Vega AV, Avila G, Matthews G (2013) Interaction between the transcriptional corepressor Sin3B and voltage-gated sodium channels modulates functional channel expression. Sci Rep 3:2809
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Hayton TW, Boncella JM, Scott BL, et al (2005) Synthesis of imido analogs of the uranyl ion. Science 310:1941–1943

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Rounds J, Segner R (2011) Construction Supervision. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Urias DA (ed) (2012) The Immigration & Education Nexus: A Focus on the Context & Consequences of Schooling. SensePublishers, Rotterdam
A chapter in an edited book
de Bruijn H, ten Heuvelhof EF, in ‘t Veld R (2010) An Open Process. In: ten Heuvelhof E, in ’t Veld R (eds) Process Management: Why Project Management Fails in Complex Decision Making Processes. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 81–101

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Modeling Earth Systems and Environment.

Blog post
Luntz S (2015) Waking Hummingbird Sounds Like It Is Snoring. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1996) Commercial Trucking: Safety and Infrastructure Issues Under the North American Free Trade Agreement. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Garrett D (2013) A quantitative study of STEM goal and role alignment across stakeholder leaders in California: Advocacy for application of a systems solution approach. Doctoral dissertation, Pepperdine University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Isherwood C (2015) Sigh No More; Let’s Twist and Shout. New York Times C1

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Vogel 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Vogel 2000; Day and Morris 2001).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Day and Morris 2001)
  • Three or more authors: (Hayton et al. 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleModeling Earth Systems and Environment
AbbreviationModel. Earth Syst. Environ.
ISSN (print)2363-6203
ISSN (online)2363-6211

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