How to format your references using the Modeling Earth Systems and Environment citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Modeling Earth Systems and Environment. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hemley RJ (2000) The element of uncertainty. Nature 404:240–241
A journal article with 2 authors
Dawson RJP, Locher KP (2006) Structure of a bacterial multidrug ABC transporter. Nature 443:180–185
A journal article with 3 authors
Biteau B, Labarre J, Toledano MB (2003) ATP-dependent reduction of cysteine-sulphinic acid by S. cerevisiae sulphiredoxin. Nature 425:980–984
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Farquhar J, Savarino J, Jackson TL, Thiemens MH (2000) Evidence of atmospheric sulphur in the martian regolith from sulphur isotopes in meteorites. Nature 404:50–52

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Henderson B, Dorsey J (2008) Medical Terminology for Dummies®. Wiley Publishing, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Altman C (2011) Reciprocity, Spatial Mapping and Time Reversal in Electromagnetics. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht
A chapter in an edited book
Kemp A, Maguire S, Davis P (2011) Physical Child Abuse. In: Stark MM (ed) Clinical Forensic Medicine: A Physician’s Guide. Humana Press, Totowa, NJ, pp 169–202

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Modeling Earth Systems and Environment.

Blog post
Hale T (2016) Here’s What Scientists Found When They Opened A Cave That Had Been Isolated For More Than Five Million Years. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1998) Civil Agencies Information Systems Issue Area: Active Assignments. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Davis PJ (2009) A comparison of a high and low -performing school in the Soroti Catholic Diocese, Uganda, East -Africa. Doctoral dissertation, Northcentral University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse L (2006) In Death Row Case, Justices Order Retrial Over Evidence. New York Times A19

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Hemley 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Hemley 2000; Dawson and Locher 2006).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Dawson and Locher 2006)
  • Three or more authors: (Farquhar et al. 2000)

About the journal

Full journal titleModeling Earth Systems and Environment
AbbreviationModel. Earth Syst. Environ.
ISSN (print)2363-6203
ISSN (online)2363-6211

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