How to format your references using the Modeling Earth Systems and Environment citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Modeling Earth Systems and Environment. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Broer DJ (2014) Applied physics: A new view on displays. Nature 511:159–160
A journal article with 2 authors
Strässer K, Hurt E (2001) Splicing factor Sub2p is required for nuclear mRNA export through its interaction with Yra1p. Nature 413:648–652
A journal article with 3 authors
Ditzen M, Pellegrino M, Vosshall LB (2008) Insect odorant receptors are molecular targets of the insect repellent DEET. Science 319:1838–1842
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Peterson AT, Ortega-Huerta MA, Bartley J, et al (2002) Future projections for Mexican faunas under global climate change scenarios. Nature 416:626–629

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bauldry WC (2009) Introduction to Real Analysis. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Riopel M, Smyrnaiou Z (eds) (2016) New Developments in Science and Technology Education, 1st ed. 2016. Springer International Publishing, Cham
A chapter in an edited book
Hellström L (2009) A Rewriting Approach to Graph Invariants. In: Silvestrov S, Paal E, Abramov V, Stolin A (eds) Generalized Lie Theory in Mathematics, Physics and Beyond. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 47–67

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Modeling Earth Systems and Environment.

Blog post
Andrews R (2016) High-Risk Stem Cell Therapy Found To Halt Multiple Sclerosis. In: IFLScience. https://www.iflscience.com/health-and-medicine/high-risk-stem-cell-therapy-found-halt-multiple-sclerosis/. Accessed 30 Oct 2018

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2001) Hourly Fees Paid by Various Federal Agencies to Private Attorneys for Legal Services. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Jang SH (2010) Interpretation of extended techniques in unaccompanied flute works by East-Asian composers: Isang Yun, Toru Takemitsu, and Kazuo Fukushima. Doctoral dissertation, University of Cincinnati

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Saslow L (2007) Roosevelt District on Mend With Acting Schools Chief. New York Times LI13

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Broer 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Strässer and Hurt 2001; Broer 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Strässer and Hurt 2001)
  • Three or more authors: (Peterson et al. 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleModeling Earth Systems and Environment
AbbreviationModel. Earth Syst. Environ.
ISSN (print)2363-6203
ISSN (online)2363-6211
Scope

Other styles