How to format your references using the Giornale Italiano di Health Technology Assessment citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Giornale Italiano di Health Technology Assessment. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Sutherland WJ. The best solution. Nature. 2005;435:569.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Falkowski PG, Isozaki Y. Geology. The story of O2. Science. 2008;322:540–2.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Fotso H, Mikelsons K, Freericks JK. Thermalization of field driven quantum systems. Sci Rep. 2014;4:4699.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Kubota Y, Watanabe K, Tsuda O, Taniguchi T. Deep ultraviolet light-emitting hexagonal boron nitride synthesized at atmospheric pressure. Science. 2007;317:932–4.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Anderson D. TKO Hiring! Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2007.
An edited book
1. Yevzlin AS, Asif A, Salman L, editors. Interventional Nephrology: Principles and Practice. New York, NY: Springer; 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Okimura Y. Branched Chain Amino Acids and Muscle Atrophy Protection. In: Rajendram R, Preedy VR, Patel VB, editors. Branched Chain Amino Acids in Clinical Nutrition: Volume 2. New York, NY: Springer; 2015. p. 49–63.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Giornale Italiano di Health Technology Assessment.

Blog post
1. Hale T. How To Have A Happy Sex Life With Your Partner, According To Science [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Evaluation of Unit Cost Reports Submitted Under Public Law 97-86, Section 917. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1982 May. Report No.: MASAD-82-36.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Gonzalez HM. DiaBeaThis Healthcare Clinic Business Plan [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Cowen T. In an Uber World, Fortune Favors the Freelancer. New York Times. 2015 Jun 27;BU6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleGiornale Italiano di Health Technology Assessment
ISSN (print)2035-3510
ISSN (online)2035-6129

Other styles