How to format your references using the Giornale Italiano di Health Technology Assessment citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Giornale Italiano di Health Technology Assessment. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Taylor WR. A “periodic table” for protein structures. Nature. 2002;416:657–60.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Krueger AB, Malecková J. Attitudes and action: public opinion and the occurrence of international terrorism. Science. 2009;325:1534–6.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Wardle DA, Walker LR, Bardgett RD. Ecosystem properties and forest decline in contrasting long-term chronosequences. Science. 2004;305:509–13.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Sanai N, Berger MS, Garcia-Verdugo JM, Alvarez-Buylla A. Comment on “Human neuroblasts migrate to the olfactory bulb via a lateral ventricular extension.” Science. 2007;318:393; author reply 393.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Markley NG. Principles of Differential Equations. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2004.
An edited book
1. Sadowski T. Loadings in Thermal Barrier Coatings of Jet Engine Turbine Blades: An Experimental Research and Numerical Modeling. Golewski P, editor. Singapore: Springer; 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Capello R, Fratesi U. Space and Empirical Approaches to Regional Growth. In: Camagni R, Chizzolini B, Fratesi U, editors. Modelling Regional Scenarios for the Enlarged Europe: European Competiveness and Global Strategies. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2008. p. 49–67.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Giornale Italiano di Health Technology Assessment.

Blog post
1. Andrew D. People Hadn’t Set Foot In This Ancient “Lost City” In The Honduran Jungle For 500 Years — Until Now [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2017 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. FCC’s Decision To Consolidate Licensing Division in Gettysburg, Pa. Was Made Without Adequate Analysis. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1979 Dec. Report No.: CED-80-27.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Manners AT. Influence of transformational, autocratic, democratic, and laissez -faire leadership principles on the effectiveness of religious leaders [Doctoral dissertation]. [Phoenix, AZ]: University of Phoenix; 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Pilon M. Inspiring Horse Honored. New York Times. 2012 Jan 14;D4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleGiornale Italiano di Health Technology Assessment
ISSN (print)2035-3510
ISSN (online)2035-6129

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