How to format your references using the Giornale Italiano di Health Technology Assessment citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Giornale Italiano di Health Technology Assessment. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Nusse R. Cancer. Converging on beta-catenin in Wilms tumor. Science. 2007;316:988–9.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Boehr DD, Wright PE. Biochemistry. How do proteins interact? Science. 2008;320:1429–30.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Zahidi EM, Oudghiri-Hassani H, McBreen PH. Formation of thermally stable alkylidene layers on a catalytically active surface. Nature. 2001;409:1023–6.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Hiratsuka T, Furihata K, Ishikawa J, Yamashita H, Itoh N, Seto H, et al. An alternative menaquinone biosynthetic pathway operating in microorganisms. Science. 2008;321:1670–3.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Seabridge A, Morgan S. Air Travel and Health. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2010.
An edited book
1. Hancock ER, Wilson RC, Windeatt T, Ulusoy I, Escolano F, editors. Structural, Syntactic, and Statistical Pattern Recognition: Joint IAPR International Workshop, SSPR&SPR 2010, Cesme, Izmir, Turkey, August 18-20, 2010. Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2010.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Marchal C. General properties of three-body systems with Hill-type stability. In: Steves BA, Maciejewski AJ, Hendry M, editors. Chaotic Worlds: From Order to Disorder in Gravitational N-Body Dynamical Systems. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2006. p. 103–28.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Giornale Italiano di Health Technology Assessment.

Blog post
1. Andrew E. Woman Becomes Obese After Fecal Transplant From Overweight Donor [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Bureau of Indian Affairs’ Progress in Providing Special Education Services to Indian Children. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1979 Sep. Report No.: CED-79-121.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Dorsey V. Impact of a family council intervention on owner knowledge and stewardship within a family business [Doctoral dissertation]. [Malibu, CA]: Pepperdine University; 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Risen J. An Ex-Detainee, but Still a Captive of ‘The Darkness.’ New York Times. 2016 Oct 12;A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleGiornale Italiano di Health Technology Assessment
ISSN (print)2035-3510
ISSN (online)2035-6129

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