How to format your references using the Mobile DNA citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Mobile DNA. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Sarewitz D. Entertaining science. Nature. 2010;466:27.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Boomsma JJ, Pamilo P. Retrospective. Rossiter H. Crozier (1943-2009). Science. 2010;327:45.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Dahl JE, Liu SG, Carlson RMK. Isolation and structure of higher diamondoids, nanometer-sized diamond molecules. Science. 2003;299:96–9.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Deng Z, Jiang Y, Wang W, Cheng L, Li W, Lu W, et al. Indium segregation measured in InGaN quantum well layer. Sci Rep. 2014;4:6734.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. bauforumstahl e.V. Beispiele zur Bemessung von Stahltragwerken nach DIN EN 1993 Eurocode 3. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA; 2011.
An edited book
1. Hagedorn P, Spelsberg-Korspeter G, editors. Active and Passive Vibration Control of Structures. 1st ed. Vienna: Springer; 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Hirsch F, Profeta C, Roynette B, Yor M. The Sato Process Method. In: Profeta C, Roynette B, Yor M, editors. Peacocks and Associated Martingales, with Explicit Constructions. Milano: Springer; 2011. p. 181–221.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Mobile DNA.

Blog post
1. Luntz S. How To Find A Binary System’s Habitable Zone [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2014 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Airport and Airway Trust Fund: Issues Raised by Proposal to Replace the Airline Ticket Tax. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1996 Dec. Report No.: RCED-97-23.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Lucas MA. Bridging the Gap Between Schools and Families Through Teacher Home Visits [Doctoral dissertation]. [ St. Charles, MO]: Lindenwood University; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Delreal JA, Bromwich JE. Suspect, an Unmoored Retiree, Kept Quiet and Gambled Often. New York Times. 2017 Oct 2;A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleMobile DNA
AbbreviationMob. DNA
ISSN (online)1759-8753
ScopeMolecular Biology

Other styles