How to format your references using the Mobile DNA citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Mobile DNA. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Nelson B. Benefits blues. Nature. 2008;454:132–3.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Cassidy DB, Mills AP Jr. The production of molecular positronium. Nature. 2007;449:195–7.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Bowman GD, O’Donnell M, Kuriyan J. Structural analysis of a eukaryotic sliding DNA clamp-clamp loader complex. Nature. 2004;429:724–30.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Fujita M, Takahashi S, Tanaka Y, Asano T, Noda S. Simultaneous inhibition and redistribution of spontaneous light emission in photonic crystals. Science. 2005;308:1296–8.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Schmidt RH, Rodrick GE. Food Safety Handbook. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2005.
An edited book
1. Étienne M, editor. Companion Modelling: A Participatory Approach to Support Sustainable Development. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Pachauri RK. Climate Change and Agroforestry. In: Nair PKR, Garrity D, editors. Agroforestry - The Future of Global Land Use. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2012. p. 13–5.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Mobile DNA.

Blog post
1. Carpineti A. Physicists Think They May Have Accidentally Discovered Dark Matter. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. USDA Telecommunications: Strong Leadership Needed to Resolve Management Weaknesses, Achieve Savings. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1998 Jun. Report No.: AIMD-98-131.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Gaete DO. Investigation of intuitive eating after intervention measured by the Intuitive Eating Scale [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. McKINLEY JC Jr. Top Judge Goes Where Flaws Are Acute to Address State of Courts. New York Times. 2017 Feb 23;A20.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleMobile DNA
AbbreviationMob. DNA
ISSN (online)1759-8753
ScopeMolecular Biology

Other styles