How to format your references using the Database citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Database. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Watanabe, M. (2003) Small world, big hopes. Nature, 426, 478–479.
A journal article with 2 authors
Ward, D. J. and MacKay, D. J. C. (2002) Artificial intelligence: fast hands-free writing by gaze direction. Nature, 418, 838.
A journal article with 3 authors
Vukusic, P., Sambles, J. R. and Lawrence, C. R. (2000) Colour mixing in wing scales of a butterfly. Nature, 404, 457.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Becker, D., Selbach, M., Rollenhagen, C., et al. (2006) Robust Salmonella metabolism limits possibilities for new antimicrobials. Nature, 440, 303–307.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Charalambides, C. A. (2016) Discrete q-Distributions. Discrete q-Distributions; John Wiley & Sons, Inc, Hoboken, NJ, (2016) .
An edited book
(2011) Corporate Criminal Liability: Emergence, Convergence, and Risk. Corporate Criminal Liability: Emergence, Convergence, and Risk; Pieth, M., Ivory, R. (eds.); Ius Gentium: Comparative Perspectives on Law and Justice; Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, (2011) ; Vol. 9.
A chapter in an edited book
Bartroff, J., Lai, T. L. and Shih, M.-C. (2013) Sequential Methods for Vaccine Safety Evaluation and Surveillance in Public Health. In Lai, T. L., Shih, M.-C. (eds.), Sequential Experimentation in Clinical Trials: Design and Analysis, Springer Series in Statistics, Springer, New York, NY, pp. 101–122.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Database.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015) Pope Francis Climate Advocate: Reframing The Debate. Pope Francis Climate Advocate: Reframing The Debate (accessed Oct 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2010) Telecommunications: National Broadband Plan Reflects the Experiences of Leading Countries, but Implementation Will Be Challenging. Telecommunications: National Broadband Plan Reflects the Experiences of Leading Countries, but Implementation Will Be Challenging; GAO-10-825; U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, (2010) .

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ritter, D. (2008) The EU and conflict: Critically assessing the success of the ESDP and its impact in conflict areas. Doctoral dissertation, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Corkery, M. and Walsh, M. W. (2015) Governor of Puerto Rico Warns of Looming Default Without Bankruptcy Plan. Governor of Puerto Rico Warns of Looming Default Without Bankruptcy Plan. New York Times (2015) , B6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1,2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleDatabase
AbbreviationDatabase (Oxford)
ISSN (online)1758-0463
ScopeGeneral Agricultural and Biological Sciences
General Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology
Information Systems

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