How to format your references using the Database citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Database. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Maxmen, A. (2010) Fighting the monster. Nature, 466, S18-9.
A journal article with 2 authors
Dyker, C. A. and Bertrand, G. (2008) Chemistry. Soluble allotropes of main-group elements. Science, 321, 1050–1051.
A journal article with 3 authors
Lin, J., Balabin, I. A. and Beratan, D. N. (2005) The nature of aqueous tunneling pathways between electron-transfer proteins. Science, 310, 1311–1313.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Li, C., Fu, L., Ouyang, J., et al. (2013) Enhanced performance and interfacial investigation of mineral-based composite phase change materials for thermal energy storage. Sci. Rep., 3, 1908.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Gordon, M. J., Jr. (2010) Total Quality Process Control for Injection Molding. Total Quality Process Control for Injection Molding; John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, (2010) .
An edited book
(2013) Biology and Regulation of Blood-Tissue Barriers. Biology and Regulation of Blood-Tissue Barriers; Cheng, C. Y. (ed.); Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology; Springer, New York, NY, (2013) .
A chapter in an edited book
Wang, R., Yan, Y. and Tan, B. (2014) Three-Dimensional Nonlinear Force-Free Field Reconstruction of Solar Active Region 11158 by Direct Boundary Integral Equation. In Tomczyk, S., Zhang, J., Bastian, T. (eds.), Coronal Magnetometry, Springer, New York, NY, pp. 45–67.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Database.

Blog post
Luntz, S. (2017) Risk Of Death Is Significantly Lower In Teaching Hospitals. Risk Of Death Is Significantly Lower In Teaching Hospitals (accessed Oct 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2005) Highway Safety: Further Opportunities Exist to Improve Data on Crashes Involving Commercial Motor Vehicles. Highway Safety: Further Opportunities Exist to Improve Data on Crashes Involving Commercial Motor Vehicles; GAO-06-102; U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, (2005) .

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Watkins, J. J. (2017) Victor Echo Tango (VET) Support Services Inc. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Crow, K. (2000) Pool, Gym or a Bit of Both? Neighbors Mull the Options. Pool, Gym or a Bit of Both? Neighbors Mull the Options. New York Times (2000) , 147.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1,2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleDatabase
AbbreviationDatabase (Oxford)
ISSN (online)1758-0463
ScopeGeneral Agricultural and Biological Sciences
General Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology
Information Systems

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