How to format your references using the Database citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Database. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Naccache, L. (2006) Psychology. Is she conscious?, Science, 313, 1395–1396.
A journal article with 2 authors
Derse, D. and Heidecker, G. (2003) Virology. Forced entry--or does HTLV-I have the key?, Science, 299, 1670–1671.
A journal article with 3 authors
Hu, Y., Lee, C. C. and Ribbe, M. W. (2011) Extending the carbon chain: hydrocarbon formation catalyzed by vanadium/molybdenum nitrogenases, Science, 333, 753–755.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Mu, X., Wu, X., Zhang, T., et al. (2014) Thermal transport in graphene oxide--from ballistic extreme to amorphous limit, Sci. Rep., 4, 3909.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Weisberg, H. I. Willful Ignorance; John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: Hoboken, NJ, 2014.
An edited book
Shock Wave Science and Technology Reference Library, Vol. 5: Non-Shock Initiation of Explosives; Asay, B. W., Ed.; Shock Wave Science and Technology Reference Library; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2010; Vol. 5.
A chapter in an edited book
Blankenship, J., Bussa, M. and Millett, S. In Pro Agile .NET Development with Scrum; Bussa, M.; Millett, S., Eds.; Apress: Berkeley, CA, 2011; pp. 53–86.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Database.

Blog post
O`Callaghan, J. Is There LIFE Elsewhere In The Universe? (accessed Oct 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Space Surveillance Network: Appropriate Controls Needed Over Data Access; GAO-02-402RNI; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 2002.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Chiang, I.-C. A historical technique from a modern perspective: The transcription scordatura in Mozart’s Sinfonia Concertante for Violin, Viola and Orchestra in E-flat major, K. 364. Doctoral dissertation, University of Cincinnati: Cincinnati, OH, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Crow, K. On the West Side, Who Will Pay to Make Room for Green? New York Times 2000, 1410.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1,2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleDatabase
AbbreviationDatabase (Oxford)
ISSN (online)1758-0463
ScopeGeneral Agricultural and Biological Sciences
General Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology
Information Systems

Other styles