How to format your references using the Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Armitage PJ (2013) Astronomy. A trap for planet formation. Science 340:1179–1180
A journal article with 2 authors
Jansen VAA, van Baalen M (2006) Altruism through beard chromodynamics. Nature 440:663–666
A journal article with 3 authors
Hacker J, Hentschel U, Dobrindt U (2003) Prokaryotic chromosomes and disease. Science 301:790–793
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Dentin R, Liu Y, Koo S-H, et al (2007) Insulin modulates gluconeogenesis by inhibition of the coactivator TORC2. Nature 449:366–369

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Minuth WW, Strehl R, Schumacher K (2005) Tissue Engineering. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, FRG
An edited book
Xu K (2013) Myelinated Fibers and Saltatory Conduction in the Shrimp: The Fastest Impulse Conduction in the Animal Kingdom. Springer Japan, Tokyo
A chapter in an edited book
Allen PM (2012) Cities: The Visible Expression of Co-evolving Complexity. In: Portugali J, Meyer H, Stolk E, Tan E (eds) Complexity Theories of Cities Have Come of Age: An Overview with Implications to Urban Planning and Design. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 67–89

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change.

Blog post
Andrew E (2015) Baby Beluga Whale Born In Georgia Aquarium On Mother’s Day. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2012) Maritime Infrastructure: Opportunities Exist to Improve the Effectiveness of Federal Efforts to Support the Marine Transportation System. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Moncur HB (2014) Exploring primary caregivers’ perceptions of the effects of secondhand marijuana smoke on children: A quantitative study. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wagner J (2016) Indians Open Wallet After Coming Up Short. New York Times D5

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Armitage 2013).
This sentence cites two references (Jansen and van Baalen 2006; Armitage 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Jansen and van Baalen 2006)
  • Three or more authors: (Dentin et al. 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleMitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change
AbbreviationMitig. Adapt. Strateg. Glob. Chang.
ISSN (print)1381-2386
ISSN (online)1573-1596
Global and Planetary Change

Other styles