How to format your references using the Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
O’Connor SE (2015) PLANT BIOCHEMISTRY. Fighting cancer while saving the mayapple. Science 349:1167–1168
A journal article with 2 authors
Palczewski K, Kiser PD (2013) Biochemistry. As good as chocolate. Science 340:562–563
A journal article with 3 authors
Ilonidis S, Zhao J, Kosovichev A (2011) Detection of emerging sunspot regions in the solar interior. Science 333:993–996
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Mandel CR, Kaneko S, Zhang H, et al (2006) Polyadenylation factor CPSF-73 is the pre-mRNA 3’-end-processing endonuclease. Nature 444:953–956

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Lalanne C (2014) Random Vibration. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK
An edited book
Caveen A (2015) The Controversy over Marine Protected Areas: Science meets Policy. Springer International Publishing, Cham
A chapter in an edited book
Putora PM, Peters S, Bovet M (2015) Informatics in Radiation Oncology. In: El Naqa I, Li R, Murphy MJ (eds) Machine Learning in Radiation Oncology: Theory and Applications. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp 57–70

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change.

Blog post
O`Callaghan J (2017) Fast Radio Bursts Definitely Come From Outer Space. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2013) Unmanned Aircraft Systems: Continued Coordination, Operational Data, and Performance Standards Needed to Guide Research and Development. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Guarin Y (2017) A Postpartum Support Group for Women Experiencing Postpartum Depression: A Grant Proposal. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly K (2017) Seeking a Shift to Entrepreneurship, Executive Will Leave JPMorgan. New York Times B3

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (O’Connor 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Palczewski and Kiser 2013; O’Connor 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Palczewski and Kiser 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (Mandel et al. 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleMitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change
AbbreviationMitig. Adapt. Strateg. Glob. Chang.
ISSN (print)1381-2386
ISSN (online)1573-1596
Global and Planetary Change

Other styles