How to format your references using the Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Chapman CR (2000) Meteorites. The long trip to Earth. Nature 407:573, 575–6
A journal article with 2 authors
Kincaid C, Griffiths RW (2003) Laboratory models of the thermal evolution of the mantle during rollback subduction. Nature 425:58–62
A journal article with 3 authors
Sherwood SC, Bony S, Dufresne J-L (2014) Spread in model climate sensitivity traced to atmospheric convective mixing. Nature 505:37–42
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Lakatos P, Karmos G, Mehta AD, et al (2008) Entrainment of neuronal oscillations as a mechanism of attentional selection. Science 320:110–113

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kramer A, Legeard B (2016) Model-Based Testing Essentials. John Wiley & Sons, Inc, Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Raghavan NRS, Cafeo JA (eds) (2009) Product Research: The Art and Science Behind Successful Product Launches. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht
A chapter in an edited book
Awrejcewicz J (2009) Contact Characteristics During Braking process. In: Awrejcewicz J (ed) Nonsmooth Dynamics of Contacting Thermoelastic Bodies. Springer, New York, NY, pp 1–20

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change.

Blog post
Andrew E (2014) Spectacular Solar Eruption Caught On Camera. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1991) Financial Management: Actions Needed to Ensure Effective Implementation of NASA’s Accounting System. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Rodriguez EP (2014) Curriculum development for nursing assistants: Pressure ulcer prevention module. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Gorman J (2016) Figaro, the Toolmaking Cockatoo. New York Times D3

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Chapman 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Chapman 2000; Kincaid and Griffiths 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Kincaid and Griffiths 2003)
  • Three or more authors: (Lakatos et al. 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleMitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change
AbbreviationMitig. Adapt. Strateg. Glob. Chang.
ISSN (print)1381-2386
ISSN (online)1573-1596
Global and Planetary Change

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