How to format your references using the Financial Markets and Portfolio Management citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Financial Markets and Portfolio Management. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Mayor, S.: Coming home. Nature. 436, 488–489 (2005)
A journal article with 2 authors
Buesseler, K.O., Boyd, P.W.: Climate change. Will ocean fertilization work? Science. 300, 67–68 (2003)
A journal article with 3 authors
Kusumbe, A.P., Ramasamy, S.K., Adams, R.H.: Coupling of angiogenesis and osteogenesis by a specific vessel subtype in bone. Nature. 507, 323–328 (2014)
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Fabiani, A., Hoelzel, A.R., Galimberti, F., Muelbert, M.M.C.: Long-range paternal gene flow in the southern elephant seal. Science. 299, 676 (2003)

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Faticoni, T.G.: The Mathematics of Infinity. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ (2006)
An edited book
de Franchis, R., Dell’Era, A. eds: Variceal Hemorrhage. Springer, New York, NY (2014)
A chapter in an edited book
Siddiqui, J.H., Khurshid, S.: An Empirical Study of Structural Constraint Solving Techniques. In: Breitman, K. and Cavalcanti, A. (eds.) Formal Methods and Software Engineering: 11th International Conference on Formal Engineering Methods ICFEM 2009, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, December 9-12, 2009. Proceedings. pp. 88–106. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg (2009)

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Financial Markets and Portfolio Management.

Blog post
Carpineti, A.: Earth’s Core Is Two Years Younger Than Its Crust Thanks To Relativity,


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Record Linkage and Privacy: Issues in Creating New Federal Research and Statistical Information. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (2001)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Boukes, J.: An exploration of online spam prevention through geolocational filters, (2012)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse, L.: Americans Held in Iraq Draw Justices’ Attention, (2007)

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Mayor 2005).
This sentence cites two references (Buesseler and Boyd 2003; Mayor 2005).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Buesseler and Boyd 2003)
  • Three or more authors: (Fabiani et al. 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleFinancial Markets and Portfolio Management
ISSN (print)1934-4554
ISSN (online)2373-8529

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