How to format your references using the Financial Markets and Portfolio Management citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Financial Markets and Portfolio Management. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Barabási, A.-L.: The origin of bursts and heavy tails in human dynamics. Nature. 435, 207–211 (2005)
A journal article with 2 authors
Hirsh, A.E., Fraser, H.B.: Protein dispensability and rate of evolution. Nature. 411, 1046–1049 (2001)
A journal article with 3 authors
Gancarz-Kausch, A.M., Adank, D.N., Dietz, D.M.: Prolonged withdrawal following cocaine self-administration increases resistance to punishment in a cocaine binge. Sci. Rep. 4, 6876 (2014)
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Naito, K., Zhang, F., Tsukiyama, T., Saito, H., Hancock, C.N., Richardson, A.O., Okumoto, Y., Tanisaka, T., Wessler, S.R.: Unexpected consequences of a sudden and massive transposon amplification on rice gene expression. Nature. 461, 1130–1134 (2009)

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Dao, T.T., Ho Ba Tho, M.-C.: Biomechanics of the Musculoskeletal System. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK (2014)
An edited book
Cowley, S.J., Vallée-Tourangeau, F. eds: Cognition Beyond the Brain: Computation, Interactivity and Human Artifice. Springer, London (2013)
A chapter in an edited book
Baruah, S., Bertogna, M., Buttazzo, G.: A Review of Selected Results on Uniprocessors. In: Bertogna, M. and Buttazzo, G. (eds.) Multiprocessor Scheduling for Real-Time Systems. pp. 29–33. Springer International Publishing, Cham (2015)

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Financial Markets and Portfolio Management.

Blog post
Andrew, E.: Some Creatures Use Electricity And Vibrations In Sex (And This Can Be Dangerous)


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Telecommunications: FTS 2000 Cost Comparison. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (1996)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Wilson, M.W.: Angels in Tinseltown: Health insurance, hormone use, and HIV among transgender women in Los Angeles, (2012)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Romero, S., Bosman, J.: As Waters Took Mother, a Child Held on to Life, (2017)

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Barabási 2005).
This sentence cites two references (Barabási 2005; Hirsh and Fraser 2001).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Hirsh and Fraser 2001)
  • Three or more authors: (Naito et al. 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleFinancial Markets and Portfolio Management
ISSN (print)1934-4554
ISSN (online)2373-8529

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