How to format your references using the Financial Markets and Portfolio Management citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Financial Markets and Portfolio Management. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kasliwal, M.M.: Astrophysics. Seeing gravitational waves. Science. 340, 555–556 (2013)
A journal article with 2 authors
Jin, H.-J., Kaplan, D.L.: Mechanism of silk processing in insects and spiders. Nature. 424, 1057–1061 (2003)
A journal article with 3 authors
Kitajima, T.S., Kawashima, S.A., Watanabe, Y.: The conserved kinetochore protein shugoshin protects centromeric cohesion during meiosis. Nature. 427, 510–517 (2004)
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Xie, F., Li, J., Tian, W., Li, Y., Feng, J.: Indo-Pacific warm pool area expansion, Modoki activity, and tropical cold-point tropopause temperature variations. Sci. Rep. 4, 4552 (2014)

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Meschede, D.: Optics, Light, and Lasers. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, Germany (2017)
An edited book
Hou, Z. ed: Measuring Technology and Mechatronics Automation in Electrical Engineering. Springer, New York, NY (2012)
A chapter in an edited book
Zeegers, M., Zhang, X.: English as a Foreign Language Curriculum Reform in China. In: Guo, S. and Guo, Y. (eds.) Spotlight on China: Changes in Education under China’s Market Economy. pp. 53–66. SensePublishers, Rotterdam (2016)

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Financial Markets and Portfolio Management.

Blog post
O`Callaghan, J.: Cassini Snaps Glorious Image Of Dione Lit Up By Saturn’s Reflected Light


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: VA Student Financial Aid: Actions Needed to Reduce Overlap in Approval Activities. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (2007)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Daczo, Z.: Wage inequality and the gender wage gap: Are American women swimming upstream?, (2012)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Grynbaum, M.M.: Remarks Draw Backlash That Unites a Normally Fractious News Media, (2017)

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Kasliwal 2013).
This sentence cites two references (Jin and Kaplan 2003; Kasliwal 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Jin and Kaplan 2003)
  • Three or more authors: (Xie et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleFinancial Markets and Portfolio Management
ISSN (print)1934-4554
ISSN (online)2373-8529

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