How to format your references using the Representation citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Representation. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
LI, WANXIN. 2009. Small but effective moves towards a greener China. Nature 460 (7256): 683–4.
A journal article with 2 authors
RAUSCHENBERGER, R., and S. YANTIS. 2001. Masking unveils pre-amodal completion representation in visual search. Nature 410 (6826): 369–72.
A journal article with 3 authors
MOSELEY, RACHEL L., FRIEDEMANN PULVERMÜLLER, and YURY SHTYROV. 2013. Sensorimotor semantics on the spot: brain activity dissociates between conceptual categories within 150 ms. Scientific reports 3: 1928.
A journal article with 6 or more authors
JANES, KEVIN A. et al. 2005. A systems model of signaling identifies a molecular basis set for cytokine-induced apoptosis. Science (New York, N.Y.) 310 (5754): 1646–53.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
PORT, MICHAEL. 2008. Beyond Booked Solid. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
OPPEN, MADELEINE J. H. VAN, and JANICE M. LOUGH, ed. 2009. Coral Bleaching: Patterns, Processes, Causes and Consequences. Vol. 205. Ecological Studies. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
VELARDE, M. G., W. EBELING, and A. P. CHETVERIKOV. 2013. Soliton-Mediated Electron Transfer and Electric Transport Arising from Coupling Electron Quantum Mechanics to Nonlinear Elasticity in Anharmonic Crystal Lattices. In IUTAM Symposium on Nonlinear Dynamics for Advanced Technologies and Engineering Design: Proceedings of the IUTAM Symposium on Nonlinear Dynamics for Advanced Technologies and Engineering Design, held Aberdeen, UK, 27-30 July 2010, edited by Marian Wiercigroch and Giuseppe Rega. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands, pp. 47–62.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Representation.

Blog post
ANDREW, ELISE. 2015. The Long Reach Of The Past: Did Prehistoric Humans Shape Today’s Ecosystems? IFLScience. IFLScience. Available at, accessed 30 October 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE. 1978. NORAD’s Information Processing Improvement Program: Will It Enhance Mission Capability? LCD-78-117. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
STANGL, BETHANY L. 2010. The mediation of cognitive task performance in post-menopausal women: An examination of the effects of DHEA upon cognition. Doctoral dissertation, Washington, DC: George Washington University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
LELAND, JOHN, and SARAH MASLIN NIR. 2017. The Village Voice, Keeper of Downtown Cool, Will Shed Its Print Edition. New York Times, August 22.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Li 2009).
This sentence cites two references (Li 2009; Rauschenberger and Yantis 2001).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Rauschenberger and Yantis 2001)
  • Three authors: (Moseley, Pulvermüller, and Shtyrov 2013)
  • 4 or more authors: (Janes et al. 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleRepresentation
ISSN (print)0034-4893
ISSN (online)1749-4001

Other styles