How to format your references using the Representation citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Representation. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
FISHELL, GORDON. 2013. Hurricane Sandy: After the deluge. Nature 496 (7446): 421–2.
A journal article with 2 authors
SEIFE, C., and D. MALAKOFF. 2000. PHYSICS: Will Livermore Laser Ever Burn Brightly? Science (New York, N.Y.) 289 (5482): 1126–9.
A journal article with 3 authors
JENKINS, NOAH, JENNIFER R. SAAM, and SUSAN E. MANGO. 2006. CYK-4/GAP provides a localized cue to initiate anteroposterior polarity upon fertilization. Science (New York, N.Y.) 313 (5791): 1298–301.
A journal article with 6 or more authors
SIDERIS, PAUL J., ULLA GRO NIELSEN, ZHEHONG GAN, and CLARE P. GREY. 2008. Mg/Al ordering in layered double hydroxides revealed by multinuclear NMR spectroscopy. Science (New York, N.Y.) 321 (5885): 113–7.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
ZITO, RALPH. 2011. Electrochemical Water Processing. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
BERBINEAU, MARION et al., ed. 2013. Communication Technologies for Vehicles: 5th International Workshop, Nets4Cars/Nets4Trains 2013, Villeneuve d’Ascq, France, May 14-15, 2013. Proceedings. Vol. 7865. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
LASAYGUES, PHILIPPE et al. 2012. Advanced Ultrasonic Tomograph of Children’s Bones. In Acoustical Imaging: Volume 31, edited by Andrzej Nowicki, Jerzy Litniewski, and Tamara Kujawska. Acoustical Imaging. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands, pp. 31–8.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Representation.

Blog post
CARPINETI, ALFREDO. 2017. Sun Might Enter Very Quiet Period, Limiting Northern Lights Shows To Just North Pole. IFLScience. IFLScience. Available at, accessed 30 October 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE. 1995. Coast Guard Cutters: Actions Needed Now to Ensure Better Management of Parts and Supplies. RCED-95-62. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
YOON, YEOUNGCHIN. 2010. Nano-tribology of discrete track recording media. Doctoral dissertation, La Jolla, CA: University of California San Diego.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
YABLONSKY, LINDA. 2006. ‘Caligula’ Gives a Toga Party (But No One’s Really Invited). New York Times, February 26.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Fishell 2013).
This sentence cites two references (Fishell 2013; Seife and Malakoff 2000).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Seife and Malakoff 2000)
  • Three authors: (Jenkins, Saam, and Mango 2006)
  • 4 or more authors: (Sideris et al. 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleRepresentation
ISSN (print)0034-4893
ISSN (online)1749-4001

Other styles