How to format your references using the Representation citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Representation. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
GOMEZ, HALEY. 2014. Astrophysics: Survival of the largest. Nature 511 (7509): 296–7.
A journal article with 2 authors
TRUITT, WILLIAM A., and LIQUE M. COOLEN. 2002. Identification of a potential ejaculation generator in the spinal cord. Science (New York, N.Y.) 297 (5586): 1566–9.
A journal article with 3 authors
GERSHENFELD, NEIL, STEPHEN SAMOUHOS, and BRUCE NORDMAN. 2010. Engineering. Intelligent infrastructure for energy efficiency. Science (New York, N.Y.) 327 (5969): 1086–8.
A journal article with 6 or more authors
PENNEKAMP, FRANK et al. 2018. Biodiversity increases and decreases ecosystem stability. Nature 563 (7729): 109–12.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
BELMONT, DAVID P. 2011. Managing Hedge Fund Risk and Financing. 1 Fusionopolis Walk, #07-01, Solaris South Tower, Singapore 138628: John Wiley & Sons (Asia) Pte. Ltd.
An edited book
FODOR, JÁNOS, and ROBERT FULLÉR, ed. 2014. Advances in Soft Computing, Intelligent Robotics and Control. Vol. 8. Topics in Intelligent Engineering and Informatics. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
XI, HUI, SEUNGHO LEE, and YOUNG-JUN SON. 2011. An Integrated Pedestrian Behavior Model Based on Extended Decision Field Theory and Social Force Model. In Human-in-the-Loop Simulations: Methods and Practice, edited by Ling Rothrock and S. Narayanan. London: Springer, pp. 69–95.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Representation.

Blog post
ANDREWS, ROBIN. 2016. Scientists Reveal How Humanity Could Survive The End Of The World. IFLScience. IFLScience. Available at, accessed 30 October 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE. 1996. Statistical Agencies: A Comparison of the U.S. and Canadian Statistical Systems. GGD-96-142. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
LAKE, APRIL D. 2013. Hepatic stress response mechanisms in progressive human nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Doctoral dissertation, Tucson, AZ: University of Arizona.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
KELLY, DAVID A. 2006. On Road or Trail, Navigating Made Simple. New York Times, March 5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Gomez 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Gomez 2014; Truitt and Coolen 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Truitt and Coolen 2002)
  • Three authors: (Gershenfeld, Samouhos, and Nordman 2010)
  • 4 or more authors: (Pennekamp et al. 2018)

About the journal

Full journal titleRepresentation
ISSN (print)0034-4893
ISSN (online)1749-4001

Other styles