How to format your references using the Representation citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Representation. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
HUNT, GENE. 2007. Paleontology. Variation and early evolution. Science (New York, N.Y.) 317 (5837): 459–60.
A journal article with 2 authors
UTZ, MARCEL, and JAMES LANDERS. 2010. Chemistry. Magnetic resonance and microfluidics. Science (New York, N.Y.) 330 (6007): 1056–8.
A journal article with 3 authors
TRILLO, S., J. S. TOTERO GONGORA, and A. FRATALOCCHI. 2014. Wave instabilities in the presence of non vanishing background in nonlinear Schrödinger systems. Scientific reports 4: 7285.
A journal article with 6 or more authors
DAQING, LI, JIANG YINAN, KANG RUI, and SHLOMO HAVLIN. 2014. Spatial correlation analysis of cascading failures: congestions and blackouts. Scientific reports 4: 5381.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
CLEAVER, HEDY, PAT CAWSON, SARAH GORIN, and STEVE WALKER. 2009. Safeguarding Children. Chichester, West Sussex, UK: John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
An edited book
VARSHNEY, RAJEEV K., and ROBERTO TUBEROSA, ed. 2007. Genomics-Assisted Crop Improvement: Vol. 1: Genomics Approaches and Platforms. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
FRANÇOIS, DOMINIQUE, ANDRÉ PINEAU, and ANDRÉ ZAOUI. 2012. Elastoviscoplasticity. In Mechanical Behaviour of Materials: Volume 1: Micro- and Macroscopic Constitutive Behaviour, edited by André Pineau and André Zaoui. Solid Mechanics and Its Applications. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands, pp. 363–444.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Representation.

Blog post
CARPINETI, CHRIS. 2017. Outstanding Drone Footage Captures Blue Whales Feeding. IFLScience. IFLScience. Available at, accessed 30 October 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE. 1989. Observations on Management of Department of Education’s Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative Services. T-HRD-89-34. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
BLICHA, EMILY ANN. 2015. Music therapy program for older adults: A grant proposal. Doctoral dissertation, Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
VECSEY, GEORGE. 2010. Worst Call Ever? Sure. Kill the Umpires? Never. New York Times, June 4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Hunt 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Hunt 2007; Utz and Landers 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Utz and Landers 2010)
  • Three authors: (Trillo, Gongora, and Fratalocchi 2014)
  • 4 or more authors: (Daqing et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleRepresentation
ISSN (print)0034-4893
ISSN (online)1749-4001

Other styles