How to format your references using the Representation citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Representation. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
MAC LOW, MORDECAI-MARK. 2013. From gas to stars over cosmic time. Science (New York, N.Y.) 340 (6140): 1229229.
A journal article with 2 authors
QIAN, LULU, and ERIK WINFREE. 2011. Scaling up digital circuit computation with DNA strand displacement cascades. Science (New York, N.Y.) 332 (6034): 1196–201.
A journal article with 3 authors
SIBANDA, BANCINYANE L., DIMITRI Y. CHIRGADZE, and TOM L. BLUNDELL. 2010. Crystal structure of DNA-PKcs reveals a large open-ring cradle comprised of HEAT repeats. Nature 463 (7277): 118–21.
A journal article with 6 or more authors
MERKEL, SÉBASTIEN et al. 2006. Plastic deformation of MgGeO3 post-perovskite at lower mantle pressures. Science (New York, N.Y.) 311 (5761): 644–6.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
ANCHEYTA, JORGE. 2011. Modeling and Simulation of Catalytic Reactors for Petroleum Refining. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
MAISEL, WILLIAM H., ed. 2009. Device Therapy in Heart Failure. Contemporary Cardiology. Totowa, NJ: Humana Press.
A chapter in an edited book
BIASIN, MASSIMO. 2016. The German Cooperative Banks. An Economic Overview. In Credit Cooperative Institutions in European Countries, edited by Simeon Karafolas. Contributions to Economics. Cham: Springer International Publishing, pp. 83–110.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Representation.

Blog post
ANDREW, DANIELLE. 2015. This Single Image Contains 6 Celestial Phenomena. How Many Can You Name? IFLScience. IFLScience. Available at, accessed 30 October 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE. 1991. Digests of Decisions of the Comptroller General of the United States, Vol. II, No. 5. 144236. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
HARPER, TIFFANY. 2010. Going public, staying private, and everything in between. Doctoral dissertation, Tucson, AZ: University of Arizona.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
CORKERY, MICHAEL, and MARY WILLIAMS WALSH. 2015. Treasury Considers Plan to Help Puerto Rico. New York Times, October 15.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Mac Low 2013).
This sentence cites two references (Mac Low 2013; Qian and Winfree 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Qian and Winfree 2011)
  • Three authors: (Sibanda, Chirgadze, and Blundell 2010)
  • 4 or more authors: (Merkel et al. 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleRepresentation
ISSN (print)0034-4893
ISSN (online)1749-4001

Other styles