How to format your references using the Representation citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Representation. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
AMELINO-CAMELIA, GIOVANNI. 2007. Theoretical physics: walk the Planck. Nature 448 (7151): 257.
A journal article with 2 authors
RHEE, HO SUNG, and B. FRANKLIN PUGH. 2012. Genome-wide structure and organization of eukaryotic pre-initiation complexes. Nature 483 (7389): 295–301.
A journal article with 3 authors
ACKERMAN, JOSHUA M., CHRISTOPHER C. NOCERA, and JOHN A. BARGH. 2010. Incidental haptic sensations influence social judgments and decisions. Science (New York, N.Y.) 328 (5986): 1712–5.
A journal article with 6 or more authors
HOEFLICH, K. P. et al. 2000. Requirement for glycogen synthase kinase-3beta in cell survival and NF-kappaB activation. Nature 406 (6791): 86–90.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
SIZER, ANDREW et al. 2016. Part 2 MRCOG: Single Best Answer Questions. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
VELDE, CHRISTINE R., ed. 2009. International Perspectives on Competence in the Workplace: Implications for Research, Policy and Practice. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
LEINO, OLLI TAPIO. 2012. Untangling Gameplay: An Account of Experience, Activity and Materiality Within Computer Game Play. In The Philosophy of Computer Games, edited by John Richard Sageng, Hallvard Fossheim, and Tarjei Mandt Larsen. Philosophy of Engineering and Technology. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands, pp. 57–75.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Representation.

Blog post
FANG, JANET. 2014. Earliest Fossil Traces of Life Questioned. IFLScience. IFLScience. Available at, accessed 30 October 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE. 1990. Circumstances Surrounding the ASPJ Limited Production Decision. T-NSIAD-90-40. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
KELLY, JENNIFER CHRISTINE. 2012. The fluid evolution of the Mount Mica and Irish Pit pegmatites, Maine: Evidence from stable isotopes. Doctoral dissertation, Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
KELLY, WILLIAM P. 2002. Mr. Miró, Mr. Basie. New York Times, November 3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Amelino-Camelia 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Amelino-Camelia 2007; Rhee and Pugh 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Rhee and Pugh 2012)
  • Three authors: (Ackerman, Nocera, and Bargh 2010)
  • 4 or more authors: (Hoeflich et al. 2000)

About the journal

Full journal titleRepresentation
ISSN (print)0034-4893
ISSN (online)1749-4001

Other styles