How to format your references using the Military Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Military Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Bowler PJ. Darwin’s Originality. Science. 2009 Jan 9;323(5911):223–6.
A journal article with 2 authors
Levens D, Gupta A. Molecular biology. Reliable noise. Science. 2010 Feb 26;327(5969):1088–9.
A journal article with 3 authors
Suzuki G, Shimazu N, Tanaka M. A yeast prion, Mod5, promotes acquired drug resistance and cell survival under environmental stress. Science. 2012 Apr 20;336(6079):355–9.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Huang Y-A, Kao C-W, Liu K-K, Huang H-S, Chiang M-H, Soo C-R, et al. The effect of fluorescent nanodiamonds on neuronal survival and morphogenesis. Sci Rep. 2014 Nov 5;4:6919.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Deichmann U. Flüchten, Mitmachen, Vergessen. Weinheim, FRG: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA; 2005.
An edited book
Levitan MA. Sedimentation History in the Arctic Ocean and Subarctic Seas for the Last 130 kyr. Lavrushin YA, editor. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2009. XXIX, 387 p. 91 illus. (Lecture Notes in Earth Sciences; vol. 118).
A chapter in an edited book
Powsner S. Psychiatric Consultation in the Emergency Setting. In: Leigh H, Streltzer J, editors. Handbook of Consultation-Liaison Psychiatry. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015. p. 39–62.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Military Medicine.

Blog post
Andrew E. Twisted Light Beams Are Coming – And They Will Boost Your Internet Speed [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Small Business Administration: Enhancements Needed for Loan Monitoring System Benchmark Study. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1999 May. Report No.: AIMD-99-165.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Denno D. Multiple paths to first grade: A comparison of child, parent, and early education variables associated with multiple year kindergarten experiences [Doctoral dissertation]. [Cincinnati, OH]: University of Cincinnati; 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Walt SM. The Power Of a Strong State Dept. New York Times. 2017 May 12;A29.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleMilitary Medicine
AbbreviationMil. Med.
ISSN (print)0026-4075
ISSN (online)1930-613X
ScopeGeneral Medicine
Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health

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