How to format your references using the Military Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Military Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1.
Hilton D. Practical policies can combat gender inequality. Nature. 2015 Jul 2;523(7558):7.
A journal article with 2 authors
1.
Schwartz MA, Chen CS. Cell biology. Deconstructing dimensionality. Science. 2013 Jan 25;339(6118):402–4.
A journal article with 3 authors
1.
Tatar M, Bartke A, Antebi A. The endocrine regulation of aging by insulin-like signals. Science. 2003 Feb 28;299(5611):1346–51.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1.
Pironio S, Acín A, Massar S, de la Giroday AB, Matsukevich DN, Maunz P, et al. Random numbers certified by Bell’s theorem. Nature. 2010 Apr 15;464(7291):1021–4.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1.
Hites RA, Raff JD. Elements of Environmental Chemistry. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2012.
An edited book
1.
Hell JW, Ehlers MD, editors. Structural And Functional Organization Of The Synapse. Boston, MA: Springer US; 2008.
A chapter in an edited book
1.
Cherkaoui M, Capolungo L. Grain Boundary Modeling. In: Capolungo L, editor. Atomistic and Continuum Modeling of Nanocrystalline Materials: Deformation Mechanisms and Scale Transition. Boston, MA: Springer US; 2009. p. 117–42. (Springer Series in Materials Science).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Military Medicine.

Blog post
1.
Carpineti A. Space Declared LGBT-Friendly After Pride Flag Launch Stunt [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from: https://www.iflscience.com/space/space-declared-lgbt-friendly-after-pride-flag-launch-stunt/

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1.
Government Accountability Office. District of Columbia Opportunity Scholarship Program: Additional Policies and Procedures Would Improve Internal Controls and Program Operations. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2007 Nov. Report No.: GAO-08-9.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1.
Luna AC. Analysis of the California Mental Health Services Act [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1.
Kelly M. THE TRANSITION: Packaging the Candidate; The Making of a First Family: a Blueprint. New York Times. 1992 Nov 14;11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleMilitary Medicine
AbbreviationMil. Med.
ISSN (print)0026-4075
ISSN (online)1930-613X
ScopeGeneral Medicine
Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health

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