How to format your references using the Military Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Military Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1.
Atwood HL. Neuroscience. Gatekeeper at the synapse. Science. 2006 May 19;312(5776):1008–9.
A journal article with 2 authors
1.
Townley R, Shapiro L. Crystal structures of the adenylate sensor from fission yeast AMP-activated protein kinase. Science. 2007 Mar 23;315(5819):1726–9.
A journal article with 3 authors
1.
Coussens LM, Zitvogel L, Palucka AK. Neutralizing tumor-promoting chronic inflammation: a magic bullet? Science. 2013 Jan 18;339(6117):286–91.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1.
Früh-Green GL, Kelley DS, Bernasconi SM, Karson JA, Ludwig KA, Butterfield DA, et al. 30,000 years of hydrothermal activity at the lost city vent field. Science. 2003 Jul 25;301(5632):495–8.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1.
Brendel R. Thin-Film Crystalline Silicon Solar Cells. Weinheim, FRG: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA; 2005.
An edited book
1.
Behrends E, Crato N, Rodrigues JF, editors. Raising Public Awareness of Mathematics. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2012. XV, 404 p. 292 illus., 254 illus. in color.
A chapter in an edited book
1.
Recher M, Lang KS. Innate (Over)immunity and Adaptive Autoimmune Disease. In: Radbruch A, Lipsky PE, editors. Current Concepts in Autoimmunity and Chronic Inflammation. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2006. p. 89–104. (Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Military Medicine.

Blog post
1.
Andrew E. Parents’ Views on Vaccines are Changing. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015.

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1.
Government Accountability Office. Information Technology Management: Coast Guard Practices Can Be Improved. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2000 Dec. Report No.: GAO-01-190.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1.
Bebianno Simoes M. Work and social activism in the life stories of Latina domestic workers [Doctoral dissertation]. [College Park, MD]: University of Maryland, College Park; 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1.
Kenigsberg B. Film Series. New York Times. 2017 Aug 31;C20.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleMilitary Medicine
AbbreviationMil. Med.
ISSN (print)0026-4075
ISSN (online)1930-613X
ScopeGeneral Medicine
Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health

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