How to format your references using the Manual Therapy citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Manual Therapy. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Leask J. Target the fence-sitters. Nature 2011;473:443–5.
A journal article with 2 authors
Friedman A, Perrimon N. A functional RNAi screen for regulators of receptor tyrosine kinase and ERK signalling. Nature 2006;444:230–4.
A journal article with 3 authors
Kernbauer E, Ding Y, Cadwell K. An enteric virus can replace the beneficial function of commensal bacteria. Nature 2014;516:94–8.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Mariathasan S, Newton K, Monack DM, Vucic D, French DM, Lee WP, et al. Differential activation of the inflammasome by caspase-1 adaptors ASC and Ipaf. Nature 2004;430:213–8.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kirwan MJ. Handbook of Paper and Paperboard Packaging Technology. Oxford: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2013.
An edited book
van Houtum G-J. Spare Parts Inventory Control under System Availability Constraints. vol. 227. Boston, MA: Springer US; 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
Han J-M, Yi B-J. An Orbital Velocity-Based Obstacle Avoidance Algorithm for Surgical Robots. In: Lee S, Cho H, Yoon K-J, Lee J, editors. Intelligent Autonomous Systems 12: Volume 2 Proceedings of the 12th International Conference IAS-12, held June 26-29, 2012, Jeju Island, Korea, Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2013, p. 37–50.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Manual Therapy.

Blog post
Andrews R. Watch As 15 Years’ Worth Of Earthquakes Shake The Planet. IFLScience 2016. (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Higher Education: Selected Information on Student Financial Aid Received by Legal Immigrants. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1995.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Gan K. A Parity-Violating Spin Rotation Measurement of Transversely Polarized Cold Neutrons Through a Liquid Helium Target. Doctoral dissertation. George Washington University, 2011.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Barron J. Montauk Gives Bravo’s ‘Summer House’ a Cold Reception. New York Times 2017:A15.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Leask, 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Friedman and Perrimon, 2006; Leask, 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Friedman and Perrimon, 2006)
  • Three or more authors: (Mariathasan et al., 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleManual Therapy
AbbreviationMan. Ther.
ISSN (print)1356-689X
ScopeGeneral Medicine
Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation

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