How to format your references using the Manual Therapy citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Manual Therapy. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Taubes G. ASTRONOMY: Researchers Get Spectrum Bands. Science 2000;288:2107–9.
A journal article with 2 authors
Goyal SK, Konrad T. Teleporting photonic qudits using multimode quantum scissors. Sci Rep 2013;3:3548.
A journal article with 3 authors
Grosenick L, Clement TS, Fernald RD. Fish can infer social rank by observation alone. Nature 2007;445:429–32.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Klaassen M, Lindström A A, Meltofte H, Piersma T. Ornithology. Arctic waders are not capital breeders. Nature 2001;413:794.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Dimitriadis G. Introduction to Nonlinear Aeroelasticity. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2017.
An edited book
Hanks BW, editor. Proceedings of the 14th International Meshing Roundtable. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2005.
A chapter in an edited book
Gan Z, Tang Q. Image Processing of Laser Structured-Light Based Vision System. In: Tang Q, editor. Visual Sensing and its Applications: Integration of Laser Sensors to Industrial Robots, Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2011, p. 143–64.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Manual Therapy.

Blog post
Andrew D. China Says It Has Stopped Harvesting Organs, But Evidence Belies Its Claim. IFLScience 2017. (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Aviation Safety: Air Taxis--The Most Accident-Prone Airlines--Need Better Oversight. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1992.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Chirwa KU. Encumbered Existence: A Three Movement Work for Jazz Orchestra. Doctoral dissertation. University of Louisiana, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Markoff J. New Research Center to Explore Ethics of Artificial Intelligence. New York Times 2016:B2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Taubes, 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Goyal and Konrad, 2013; Taubes, 2000).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Goyal and Konrad, 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (Klaassen et al., 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleManual Therapy
AbbreviationMan. Ther.
ISSN (print)1356-689X
ScopeGeneral Medicine
Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation

Other styles