How to format your references using the Manual Therapy citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Manual Therapy. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Neu U. Is recent major hurricane activity normal? Nature 2008;451:E5; discussion E6.
A journal article with 2 authors
Racki G, Koeberl C. Comment on “Impact ejecta layer from the mid-Devonian: possible connection to global mass extinctions.” Science 2004;303:471; author reply 471.
A journal article with 3 authors
Dorman SN, Viner C, Rogan PK. Splicing mutation analysis reveals previously unrecognized pathways in lymph node-invasive breast cancer. Sci Rep 2014;4:7063.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Ochiai H, Sugawara T, Sakuma T, Yamamoto T. Stochastic promoter activation affects Nanog expression variability in mouse embryonic stem cells. Sci Rep 2014;4:7125.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Sauter M. From GSM to LTE. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2010.
An edited book
Öchsner A, Shokuhfar A, editors. New Frontiers of Nanoparticles and Nanocomposite Materials: Novel Principles and Techniques. vol. 4. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
Lausdahl K. Translating VDM to Alloy. In: Johnsen EB, Petre L, editors. Integrated Formal Methods: 10th International Conference, IFM 2013, Turku, Finland, June 10-14, 2013. Proceedings, Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2013, p. 46–60.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Manual Therapy.

Blog post
Fang J. Antarctic Ice Shelf Set To Collapse Within A Century. IFLScience 2015. https://www.iflscience.com/environment/colossal-antarctic-ice-shelf-thinning-top-and-bottom/ (accessed October 30, 2018).

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. ADP Management: Status of the Army’s Logistics and Technical Information Initiatives. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1988.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Murray E. California community college athletic directors lived experience and perceptions about financing issues with athletic programs. Doctoral dissertation. University of Phoenix, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Brantley B. Dear Theatergoers: Prepare for a Good Cry. New York Times 2016:C1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Neu, 2008).
This sentence cites two references (Neu, 2008; Racki and Koeberl, 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Racki and Koeberl, 2004)
  • Three or more authors: (Ochiai et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleManual Therapy
AbbreviationMan. Ther.
ISSN (print)1356-689X
ScopeGeneral Medicine
Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation

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