How to format your references using the Manual Therapy citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Manual Therapy. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Spitzer NC. Electrical activity in early neuronal development. Nature 2006;444:707–12.
A journal article with 2 authors
Palczewski K, Kiser PD. Biochemistry. As good as chocolate. Science 2013;340:562–3.
A journal article with 3 authors
Koschowitz M-C, Fischer C, Sander M. Evolution. Beyond the rainbow. Science 2014;346:416–8.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Chang S, Johnston RJ Jr, Frøkjaer-Jensen C, Lockery S, Hobert O. MicroRNAs act sequentially and asymmetrically to control chemosensory laterality in the nematode. Nature 2004;430:785–9.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Silvia JE. Dynamic Economic Decision Making. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2011.
An edited book
Hu Z. Electricity Economics: Production Functions with Electricity. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
Beye M, Jeckmans AJP, Erkin Z, Hartel P, Lagendijk RL, Tang Q. Privacy in Online Social Networks. In: Abraham A, editor. Computational Social Networks: Security and Privacy, London: Springer; 2012, p. 87–113.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Manual Therapy.

Blog post
Andrew D. Alcohol Can Protect Eyewitness Memory. IFLScience 2017.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Organizing the Federal Communications Commission for Greater Management and Regulatory Effectiveness. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1979.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Escalante-Guerra M. Policy analysis proposal regarding the Adoptions and Safe Family Act of 1997. Doctoral dissertation. California State University, Long Beach, 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Crow K. Writers Are Halted Mid-Sentence as a Y Cancels Classes. New York Times 2001:147.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Spitzer, 2006).
This sentence cites two references (Palczewski and Kiser, 2013; Spitzer, 2006).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Palczewski and Kiser, 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (Chang et al., 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleManual Therapy
AbbreviationMan. Ther.
ISSN (print)1356-689X
ScopeGeneral Medicine
Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation

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