How to format your references using the Manual Therapy citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Manual Therapy. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
von der Linde D. Materials science. A picosecond view of melting. Science 2003;302:1345–6.
A journal article with 2 authors
Smith BE, Braun RE. Germ cell migration across Sertoli cell tight junctions. Science 2012;338:798–802.
A journal article with 3 authors
Schultz PH, Staid MI, Pieters CM. Lunar activity from recent gas release. Nature 2006;444:184–6.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Miura A, Yonebayashi S, Watanabe K, Toyama T, Shimada H, Kakutani T. Mobilization of transposons by a mutation abolishing full DNA methylation in Arabidopsis. Nature 2001;411:212–4.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Barron RF, Barron BR. Design for Thermal Stresses. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2011.
An edited book
Hromkovič J, Nagl M, Westfechtel B, editors. Graph-Theoretic Concepts in Computer Science: 30th International Workshop, WG 2004, Bad Honnef, Germany, June 21-23, 2004. Revised Papers. vol. 3353. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2005.
A chapter in an edited book
Libal KR, Harding S. Community Practice, Fostering Participation, and Human Rights. In: Harding S, editor. Human Rights-Based Community Practice in the United States, Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015, p. 79–83.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Manual Therapy.

Blog post
Taub B. Smoking Cannabis While Pregnant May Increase Chance Of Babies Entering Intensive Care. IFLScience 2016.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. National Airspace System: Summary of Flight Delay Trends for 34 Airports in the Continental United States (GAO-10-543SP, May 26, 2010), an E-supplement to GAO-10-542. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2010.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Bortle CD. The role of mnemonic acronyms in clinical emergency medicine: A grounded theory study. Doctoral dissertation. University of Phoenix, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Poniewozik J. Long After the Departure, One More Cosmic Joke to Tell. New York Times 2017:C14.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (von der Linde, 2003).
This sentence cites two references (von der Linde, 2003; Smith and Braun, 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Smith and Braun, 2012)
  • Three or more authors: (Miura et al., 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleManual Therapy
AbbreviationMan. Ther.
ISSN (print)1356-689X
ScopeGeneral Medicine
Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation

Other styles