How to format your references using the Microscopy and Microanalysis citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Microscopy and Microanalysis. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Clutton-Brock, T. (2002). Breeding together: kin selection and mutualism in cooperative vertebrates. Science (New York, N.Y.) 296, 69–72.
A journal article with 2 authors
Peters, S. E. & Foote, M. (2002). Determinants of extinction in the fossil record. Nature 416, 420–424.
A journal article with 3 authors
Head, J. N., Melosh, H. J. & Ivanov, B. A. (2002). Martian meteorite launch: high-speed ejecta from small craters. Science (New York, N.Y.) 298, 1752–1756.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Ouyang, M., Huang, J. L., Cheung, C. L. & Lieber, C. M. (2001). Atomically resolved single-walled carbon nanotube intramolecular junctions. Science (New York, N.Y.) 291, 97–100.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Alexandridis, A. K. & Zapranis, A. D. (2014). Wavelet Neural Networks. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Drechsler, K., Erdt, M., Linguraru, M. G., Oyarzun Laura, C., Sharma, K., Shekhar, R. & Wesarg, S. (eds.) (2013). Clinical Image-Based Procedures. From Planning to Intervention: International Workshop, CLIP 2012, Held in Conjunction with MICCAI 2012, Nice, France, October 5, 2012, Revised Selected Papers. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Gertz, O. & McGlashan, D. (2016). Consumer-Centric Programmatic Advertising. In Programmatic Advertising: The Successful Transformation to Automated, Data-Driven Marketing in Real-Time, Management for Professionals, Busch, O. (Ed.), pp. 55–73. Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Microscopy and Microanalysis.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015). The Not-So-Invisible Damage From VW Diesel Cheat: $100 Million In Health Costs. IFLScience. (Accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2005). NASA: More Knowledge Needed to Determine Best Alternatives to Provide Space Station Logistics Support. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Liggins, J. (2012). ‘Self-concept education as a motivator of life effectiveness’. Doctoral dissertation, Malibu, CA: Pepperdine University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kishkovsky, S. (2000). Woodstock on the Volga: Protest Ages Into Singalong. New York Times, September 5, E2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Clutton-Brock, 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Clutton-Brock, 2002; Peters & Foote, 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Peters & Foote, 2002)
  • Three or more authors: (Ouyang et al., 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleMicroscopy and Microanalysis
AbbreviationMicrosc. Microanal.
ISSN (print)1431-9276
ISSN (online)1435-8115

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