How to format your references using the Microscopy and Microanalysis citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Microscopy and Microanalysis. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Oard, D. W. (2008). Social science. Unlocking the potential of the spoken word. Science (New York, N.Y.) 321, 1787–1788.
A journal article with 2 authors
Elbert, T. & Schauer, M. (2002). Burnt into memory. Nature 419, 883.
A journal article with 3 authors
Adams, M. D., McVey, M. & Sekelsky, J. J. (2003). Drosophila BLM in double-strand break repair by synthesis-dependent strand annealing. Science (New York, N.Y.) 299, 265–267.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Rahman, M. A., Masuda, A., Ohe, K., Ito, M., Hutchinson, D. O., Mayeda, A., Engel, A. G. & Ohno, K. (2013). HnRNP L and hnRNP LL antagonistically modulate PTB-mediated splicing suppression of CHRNA1 pre-mRNA. Scientific reports 3, 2931.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Lippold, J. C. (2015). Welding Metallurgy and Weldability. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Osellame, R., Cerullo, G. & Ramponi, R. (eds.) (2012). Femtosecond Laser Micromachining: Photonic and Microfluidic Devices in Transparent Materials. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Lee, S., Thompson, D. & Hansen, J. K. (2013). Sitka Spruce (Picea sitchensis (Bong.) Carr). In Forest Tree Breeding in Europe: Current State-of-the-Art and Perspectives, Managing Forest Ecosystems, Pâques, L. E. (Ed.), pp. 177–227. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Microscopy and Microanalysis.

Blog post
Andrew, D. (2017). Killing ‘Zombie’ Cells To Improve Health In Old Age. IFLScience. (Accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1996). Human Resources Information Systems Issue Area: Active Assignments. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Nelson, P. T. (2008). ‘Sound as a gateway to a personal relationship with nature’. Doctoral dissertation, Carpinteria, CA: Pacifica Graduate Institute.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Saslow, L. (2006). Grants Will Aid First-Time Home Buyers. New York Times, September 30, LI2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Oard, 2008).
This sentence cites two references (Oard, 2008; Elbert & Schauer, 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Elbert & Schauer, 2002)
  • Three or more authors: (Rahman et al., 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleMicroscopy and Microanalysis
AbbreviationMicrosc. Microanal.
ISSN (print)1431-9276
ISSN (online)1435-8115

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