How to format your references using the Microscopy and Microanalysis citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Microscopy and Microanalysis. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Tsukamoto, K. (2006). Oceanic biology: spawning of eels near a seamount. Nature 439, 929.
A journal article with 2 authors
Sivanand, S. & Wellen, K. E. (2015). Molecular biology: Salvaging the genome. Nature 524, 40–41.
A journal article with 3 authors
Russo, R., Herrmann, H. J. & de Arcangelis, L. (2014). Brain modularity controls the critical behavior of spontaneous activity. Scientific reports 4, 4312.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Hoffman, S. L., Subramanian, G. M., Collins, F. H. & Venter, J. C. (2002). Plasmodium, human and Anopheles genomics and malaria. Nature 415, 702–709.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kuo, J. B. & Lin, S.-C. (2002). Low-Voltage SOI CMOS VLSI Devices and Circuits. New York, USA: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Abbasi, A. M. (2015). Wild Edible Vegetables of Lesser Himalayas: Ethnobotanical and Nutraceutical Aspects, Volume 1. Shah, M. H. & Khan, M. A. (Eds.). Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Lenk, A. & Pallas, F. (2013). Modeling Quality Attributes of Cloud-Standby-Systems. In Service-Oriented and Cloud Computing: Second European Conference, ESOCC 2013, Málaga, Spain, September 11-13, 2013. Proceedings, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Lau, K.-K., Lamersdorf, W. & Pimentel, E. (Eds.), pp. 49–63. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Microscopy and Microanalysis.

Blog post
Taub, B. (2015). Sleepwalkers Who Injure Themselves Don’t Feel Pain Until They Wake Up. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2003). Head Start: Better Data and Processes Needed to Monitor Underenrollment. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Kuru, I. C. (2013). ‘Time-Dependent Vehicle Routing and Assignment in No-Notice Evacuations’. Doctoral dissertation, Edwardsville, IL: Southern Illinois University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Rothenberg, B. (2017). How Penguins Make A Home on Road Ice. New York Times, May 6, D3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Tsukamoto, 2006).
This sentence cites two references (Tsukamoto, 2006; Sivanand & Wellen, 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Sivanand & Wellen, 2015)
  • Three or more authors: (Hoffman et al., 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleMicroscopy and Microanalysis
AbbreviationMicrosc. Microanal.
ISSN (print)1431-9276
ISSN (online)1435-8115

Other styles