How to format your references using the Microscopy and Microanalysis citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Microscopy and Microanalysis. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Chandler, D. (2005). Interfaces and the driving force of hydrophobic assembly. Nature 437, 640–647.
A journal article with 2 authors
Hubbard, J. & Shaw, J. H. (2009). Uplift of the Longmen Shan and Tibetan plateau, and the 2008 Wenchuan (M = 7.9) earthquake. Nature 458, 194–197.
A journal article with 3 authors
Tremblay, S., Shiller, D. M. & Ostry, D. J. (2003). Somatosensory basis of speech production. Nature 423, 866–869.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Harich, S. A., Dai, D., Wang, C. C., Yang, X., Chao, S. D. & Skodje, R. T. (2002). Forward scattering due to slow-down of the intermediate in the H + HD --> D + H(2) reaction. Nature 419, 281–284.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Richter, D. H. (2017). Reading the Eighteenth-Century Novel. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Diethelm, I. & Mittermeir, R. T. (eds.) (2013). Informatics in Schools. Sustainable Informatics Education for Pupils of all Ages: 6th International Conference on Informatics in Schools: Situation, Evolution, and Perspectives, ISSEP 2013, Oldenburg, Germany, February 26–March 2, 2013. Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Ishiwatari, M. (2014). Institution and Governance Related Learning from the East Japan Earthquake and Tsunami. In Disaster Recovery: Used or Misused Development Opportunity, Disaster Risk Reduction, Shaw, R. (Ed.), pp. 77–88. Tokyo: Springer Japan.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Microscopy and Microanalysis.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015). Can The Earth Feed 11 Billion People? Four Reasons To Fear A Malthusian Future. IFLScience. (Accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2004). Federal-Aid Highways: Trends, Effect on State Spending, and Options for Future Program Design. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Jones, L. J. (2017). ‘From Corbin and Hillman to Dionysos: The Partial Unveiling of Psyche’s Stage’. Doctoral dissertation, Carpinteria, CA: Pacifica Graduate Institute.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse, L. (2007). Justices Turn Aside Case of Man Accusing C.I.A. of Torture. New York Times, October 10, A20.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Chandler, 2005).
This sentence cites two references (Chandler, 2005; Hubbard & Shaw, 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Hubbard & Shaw, 2009)
  • Three or more authors: (Harich et al., 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleMicroscopy and Microanalysis
AbbreviationMicrosc. Microanal.
ISSN (print)1431-9276
ISSN (online)1435-8115

Other styles