How to format your references using the Microscopy and Microanalysis citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Microscopy and Microanalysis. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Balibar, S. (2010). The enigma of supersolidity. Nature 464, 176–182.
A journal article with 2 authors
Sessolo, M. & Bolink, H. J. (2015). Solar cells. Perovskite solar cells join the major league. Science (New York, N.Y.) 350, 917.
A journal article with 3 authors
Zhang, F., Chen, X. & Vitousek, P. (2013). Chinese agriculture: An experiment for the world. Nature 497, 33–35.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Cheng, Q., Wu, K., Shi, Y., Wang, H. & Wang, G. P. (2013). Directionally hiding objects and creating illusions at visible wavelengths by holography. Scientific reports 3, 1974.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Fabozzi, F. J. & Drake, P. P. (2009). Finance. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Abe, A., Lee, K.-S., Leibler, L. & Kobayashi, S. (eds.) (2013). Controlled Polymerization and Polymeric Structures: Flow Microreactor Polymerization, Micelles Kinetics, Polypeptide Ordering, Light Emitting Nanostructures. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Katagi, T. (2006). Behavior of Pesticides in Water-Sediment Systems. In Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology: Continuation of Residue Reviews, Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, Ware, G. W., Albert, L. A., Voogt, P. de, Gerba, C. P., Hutzinger, O., Knaak, J. B., Mayer, F. L., Morgan, D. P., Park, D. L., Tjeerdema, R. S., Whitacre, D. M., Yang, R. S. H. & Gunther, F. A. (Eds.), pp. 133–251. New York, NY: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Microscopy and Microanalysis.

Blog post
Davis, J. (2016). Norway Is The First Country To Commit To Zero Deforestation. IFLScience. (Accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1977). Organizational Structure and Information Systems Used To Manage the Army’s Depot-Level Maintenance Programs. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Virchez Azuara, A. (2015). ‘A human resource perspective on the development of workforce agility’. Doctoral dissertation, Malibu, CA: Pepperdine University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Brantley, B. (2017). Theater; Cue the Mayhem: Gogol Returns. New York Times, May 24, AR4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Balibar, 2010).
This sentence cites two references (Balibar, 2010; Sessolo & Bolink, 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Sessolo & Bolink, 2015)
  • Three or more authors: (Cheng et al., 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleMicroscopy and Microanalysis
AbbreviationMicrosc. Microanal.
ISSN (print)1431-9276
ISSN (online)1435-8115

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