How to format your references using the International Journal of Multilingualism citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Multilingualism. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Houllier, F. (2012). Biotechnology: Bring more rigour to GM research. Nature, 491(7424), 327.
A journal article with 2 authors
Lim, C., & Allada, R. (2013). ATAXIN-2 activates PERIOD translation to sustain circadian rhythms in Drosophila. Science (New York, N.Y.), 340(6134), 875–879.
A journal article with 3 authors
Majumder, A., Ghatak, A., & Sharma, A. (2007). Microfluidic adhesion induced by subsurface microstructures. Science (New York, N.Y.), 318(5848), 258–261.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Orosei, R., Lauro, S. E., Pettinelli, E., Cicchetti, A., Coradini, M., Cosciotti, B., … Seu, R. (2018). Radar evidence of subglacial liquid water on Mars. Science (New York, N.Y.), 361(6401), 490–493.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
King, A. M. (2011). Internal Control of Fixed Assets. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Pyr’yev, Y. (2009). Nonsmooth Dynamics of Contacting Thermoelastic Bodies. (J. Awrejcewicz, Ed.) (Vol. 16). New York, NY: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Isakson, H. R., & Sproles, S. (2008). A Brief History of Native American Land Ownership. In G. Small, R. M. Malmgren, & R. A. Simons (Eds.), Indigenous Peoples and Real Estate Valuation (pp. 63–75). Boston, MA: Springer US.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Multilingualism.

Blog post
Fang, J. (2014, July 11). DARPA Wants Brain Implants For Restoring Memories. Retrieved October 30, 2018, from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1982). The Army’s Multiple Launch Rocket System Is Progressing Well and Merits Continued Support (No. MASAD-82-13). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Golf, F. (2012). Search for New Physics in a Final State with Same-Sign Dileptons, Jets, and Missing Transverse Energy at 7 TeV Center of Mass Energy (Doctoral dissertation). University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Pilon, M. (2012, September 1). View at Practice Courts an Intimate but Possibly Endangered Perk. New York Times, p. D4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Houllier, 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Houllier, 2012; Lim & Allada, 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Lim & Allada, 2013)
  • Three authors: (Majumder, Ghatak, & Sharma, 2007)
  • 6 or more authors: (Orosei et al., 2018)

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Multilingualism
AbbreviationInt. J. Multiling.
ISSN (print)1479-0718
ISSN (online)1747-7530
ScopeLanguage and Linguistics
Linguistics and Language

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