How to format your references using the International Journal of Multilingualism citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Multilingualism. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Ball, P. (2008). Triumph of the medieval mind. Nature, 452(7189), 816–818.
A journal article with 2 authors
Esler, W. P., & Wolfe, M. S. (2001). A portrait of Alzheimer secretases--new features and familiar faces. Science (New York, N.Y.), 293(5534), 1449–1454.
A journal article with 3 authors
Rajca, A., Wongsriratanakul, J., & Rajca, S. (2001). Magnetic ordering in an organic polymer. Science (New York, N.Y.), 294(5546), 1503–1505.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Srivastava, S., Santos, A., Critchley, K., Kim, K.-S., Podsiadlo, P., Sun, K., Lee, J., Xu, C., Lilly, G. D., Glotzer, S. C., & Kotov, N. A. (2010). Light-controlled self-assembly of semiconductor nanoparticles into twisted ribbons. Science (New York, N.Y.), 327(5971), 1355–1359.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Moorhouse, M., & Barry, P. (2005). Bioinformatics Biocomputing and Perl. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Lu, Y. (Ed.). (2010). Science & Technology in China: A Roadmap to 2050: Strategic General Report of the Chinese Academy of Sciences. Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Hornberger, K. (2009). Introduction to Decoherence Theory. In A. Buchleitner, C. Viviescas, & M. Tiersch (Eds.), Entanglement and Decoherence: Foundations and Modern Trends (pp. 221–276). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Multilingualism.

Blog post
Taub, B. (2016, October 12). Designer Brain Receptors May Stop Recovering Cocaine Addicts From Relapsing. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2006). Offshoring: U.S. Semiconductor and Software Industries Increasingly Produce in China and India (GAO-06-423). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Soltani, A. (2015). Parenting and disciplinary practices of Iranian mothers: A quantitative study [Doctoral dissertation]. California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Chozick, A. (2013, June 27). Jimmy Wales Is Not an Internet Billionare. New York Times, MM28.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Ball, 2008).
This sentence cites two references (Ball, 2008; Esler & Wolfe, 2001).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Esler & Wolfe, 2001)
  • Three authors: (Rajca et al., 2001)
  • 6 or more authors: (Srivastava et al., 2010)

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Multilingualism
AbbreviationInt. J. Multiling.
ISSN (print)1479-0718
ISSN (online)1747-7530
ScopeLanguage and Linguistics
Linguistics and Language

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