How to format your references using the International Journal of Multilingualism citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Multilingualism. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Carstensen, L. L. (2006). The influence of a sense of time on human development. Science (New York, N.Y.), 312(5782), 1913–1915.
A journal article with 2 authors
Gamlin, P. D., & Yoon, K. (2000). An area for vergence eye movement in primate frontal cortex. Nature, 407(6807), 1003–1007.
A journal article with 3 authors
Stern, M., Umansky, V., & Bar-Joseph, I. (2014). Exciton liquid in coupled quantum wells. Science (New York, N.Y.), 343(6166), 55–57.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Ridderinkhof, K. R., de Vlugt, Y., Bramlage, A., Spaan, M., Elton, M., Snel, J., & Band, G. P. H. (2002). Alcohol consumption impairs detection of performance errors in mediofrontal cortex. Science (New York, N.Y.), 298(5601), 2209–2211.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Yao, Y., & Liu, S. (2014). Ultrasonic Technology for Desiccant Regeneration. John Wiley & Sons Singapore Pte. Ltd.
An edited book
Jana, B. K., & Majumder, M. (Eds.). (2010). Impact of Climate Change on Natural Resource Management. Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Gohberg, I., Haimovici, I., Kaashoek, M. A., & Lerer, L. (2006). The Bezout Integral Operator: Main Property and Underlying Abstract Scheme. In D. Alpay & I. Gohberg (Eds.), The State Space Method Generalizations and Applications (pp. 225–270). Birkhäuser.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Multilingualism.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2013, October 22). Amazing Animal Sensory Perception. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2004). Information and Technology Management: Responsibilities, Reporting Relationships, Tenure, and Challenges of Agency Chief Information Officers (GAO-04-957T). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Goetz, S. B. (2014). Perceptions toward a restraint-free practice: A case study [Doctoral dissertation]. University of Phoenix.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
St. John Kelly, E. (1999, March 28). Master of Her Cub Den at 82. New York Times, 148.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Carstensen, 2006).
This sentence cites two references (Carstensen, 2006; Gamlin & Yoon, 2000).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Gamlin & Yoon, 2000)
  • Three authors: (Stern et al., 2014)
  • 6 or more authors: (Ridderinkhof et al., 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Multilingualism
AbbreviationInt. J. Multiling.
ISSN (print)1479-0718
ISSN (online)1747-7530
ScopeLanguage and Linguistics
Linguistics and Language

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