How to format your references using the International Journal of Multilingualism citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Multilingualism. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hinnebusch, A. G. (2015). Cell biology. Blocking stress response for better memory? Science (New York, N.Y.), 348(6238), 967–968.
A journal article with 2 authors
Nott, J., & Hayne, M. (2001). High frequency of “super-cyclones” along the Great Barrier Reef over the past 5,000 years. Nature, 413(6855), 508–512.
A journal article with 3 authors
Rao, J. N., Madasu, Y., & Dominguez, R. (2014). Mechanism of actin filament pointed-end capping by tropomodulin. Science (New York, N.Y.), 345(6195), 463–467.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Li, W., Lee, S., Ma, M., Kim, S. M., Guye, P., Pancoast, J. R., Anderson, D. G., Weiss, R., Lee, R. T., & Hammond, P. T. (2013). Microbead-based biomimetic synthetic neighbors enhance survival and function of rat pancreatic β-cells. Scientific Reports, 3, 2863.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Harrison, R. G. (2014). Meteorological Measurements and Instrumentation. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Shindé, S. L., & Srivastava, G. P. (Eds.). (2014). Length-Scale Dependent Phonon Interactions (Vol. 128). Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Lim, J.-H., Song, C.-W., Chung, K.-Y., Rim, K.-W., & Lee, J.-H. (2013). Forensic Evidence Collection Procedures of Smartphone in Crime Scene. In K. J. Kim & K.-Y. Chung (Eds.), IT Convergence and Security 2012 (pp. 35–41). Springer Netherlands.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Multilingualism.

Blog post
Davis, J. (2015, July 16). Japan Accused Of Falsifying Historical Whaling Data. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2012). Federal Advisory Groups: DOT and DOE Can Take Steps to Better Assess Duplication Risk and Enhance Usefulness (GAO-12-472). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Khanabadi Ghehi, M. (2017). Global Operation of Integrated Decentralized Power Systems [Doctoral dissertation]. Mississippi State University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kenigsberg, B. (2017, March 16). Film Series. New York Times, C21.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Hinnebusch, 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Hinnebusch, 2015; Nott & Hayne, 2001).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Nott & Hayne, 2001)
  • Three authors: (Rao et al., 2014)
  • 6 or more authors: (Li et al., 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Multilingualism
AbbreviationInt. J. Multiling.
ISSN (print)1479-0718
ISSN (online)1747-7530
ScopeLanguage and Linguistics
Linguistics and Language

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