How to format your references using the International Journal of Multilingualism citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Multilingualism. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Lingham-Soliar, T. (2014). Comment on “A Jurassic ornithischian dinosaur from Siberia with both feathers and scales.” Science (New York, N.Y.), 346(6208), 434.
A journal article with 2 authors
Funk, J. L., & Vitousek, P. M. (2007). Resource-use efficiency and plant invasion in low-resource systems. Nature, 446(7139), 1079–1081.
A journal article with 3 authors
Mavrodiev, P., Tessone, C. J., & Schweitzer, F. (2013). Quantifying the effects of social influence. Scientific Reports, 3, 1360.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Frusawa, H., Manabe, T., Kagiyama, E., Hirano, K., Kameta, N., Masuda, M., & Shimizu, T. (2013). Electric moulding of dispersed lipid nanotubes into a nanofluidic device. Scientific Reports, 3, 2165.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kuo, J. B., & Lin, S.-C. (2002). Low-Voltage SOI CMOS VLSI Devices and Circuits. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Paul, W. J. (2016). System Architecture: An Ordinary Engineering Discipline (C. Baumann, P. Lutsyk, & S. Schmaltz, Eds.). Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Teoh, H. J., Chen, T.-L., & Cheng, C.-H. (2007). Frequency-Weighted Fuzzy Time-Series Based on Fibonacci Sequence for TAIEX Forecasting. In T. Washio, Z.-H. Zhou, J. Z. Huang, X. Hu, J. Li, C. Xie, J. He, D. Zou, K.-C. Li, & M. M. Freire (Eds.), Emerging Technologies in Knowledge Discovery and Data Mining: PAKDD 2007 International Workshops Nanjing, China, May 22-25, 2007 Revised Selected Papers (pp. 27–34). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Multilingualism.

Blog post
Fang, J. (2015, August 14). Ancient Chinese Cave Writing Describes Social Impacts of Climate Change. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1973). Defaulted Loans Under the Guaranteed Student Loan Program (B-117604(7)). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Thom, R. C. (2017). Digital Martyrs and Shadowless Assailants: The Projective Shadow’s Emergence in Cyberspace [Doctoral dissertation]. Pacifica Graduate Institute.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kishkovsky, S. (2007, October 25). Kremlin Secures Price Controls On Food Items Before Elections. New York Times, A14.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Lingham-Soliar, 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Funk & Vitousek, 2007; Lingham-Soliar, 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Funk & Vitousek, 2007)
  • Three authors: (Mavrodiev et al., 2013)
  • 6 or more authors: (Frusawa et al., 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Multilingualism
AbbreviationInt. J. Multiling.
ISSN (print)1479-0718
ISSN (online)1747-7530
ScopeLanguage and Linguistics
Linguistics and Language

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