How to format your references using the Micromachines citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Micromachines. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Fukatsu, T. Evolution. A Fungal Past to Insect Color. Science 2010, 328, 574–575.
A journal article with 2 authors
Andreae, M.O.; Ramanathan, V. Climate Change. Climate’s Dark Forcings. Science 2013, 340, 280–281.
A journal article with 3 authors
Koren, I.; Dagan, G.; Altaratz, O. From Aerosol-Limited to Invigoration of Warm Convective Clouds. Science 2014, 344, 1143–1146.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Nerin, C.; Ubeda, J.L.; Alfaro, P.; Dahmani, Y.; Aznar, M.; Canellas, E.; Ausejo, R. Compounds from Multilayer Plastic Bags Cause Reproductive Failures in Artificial Insemination. Sci. Rep. 2014, 4, 4913.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Elias, H.-G. Macromolecules; Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH: D-69451 Weinheim, Germany, 2006; ISBN 9783527627226.
An edited book
Application and Theory of Petri Nets and Concurrency: 34th International Conference, PETRI NETS 2013, Milan, Italy, June 24-28, 2013. Proceedings; Colom, J.-M., Desel, J., Eds.; Lecture Notes in Computer Science; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2013; Vol. 7927; ISBN 9783642386961.
A chapter in an edited book
Coxeter, H.S.M. An Absolute Property of Four Mutually Tangent Circles. In Non-Euclidean Geometries: János Bolyai Memorial Volume; Prékopa, A., Molnár, E., Eds.; Mathematics and Its Applications; Springer US: Boston, MA, 2006; pp. 109–114 ISBN 9780387295541.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Micromachines.

Blog post
Andrews, R. What Would Happen If Every Single Nuke In The World Went Off At The Same Time? Available online: (accessed on 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Claims of Civilian Employees Who Were Overpaid per Diem While Attending Training Schools; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1978;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Laffitte, L. A Comparison of Pull-Out and Co-Teaching Models on the Reading Performance of Third through Fifth Grade Elementary Students with a Diagnosed Specific Learning Disability in Reading. Doctoral dissertation, Pepperdine University: Malibu, CA, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly, M. THE 1992 CAMPAIGN: The Democrats; In a Swift Counteroffensive, Clinton Assails Bush’s Stand on Health Care. New York Times 1992, A13.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleMicromachines
AbbreviationMicromachines (Basel)
ISSN (online)2072-666X
ScopeControl and Systems Engineering
Electrical and Electronic Engineering
Mechanical Engineering

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