How to format your references using the Micromachines citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Micromachines. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Spurgeon, D. Canada Boosts Spending on Science. Nature 2003, 421, 880.
A journal article with 2 authors
Giovannoni, S.J.; Stingl, U. Molecular Diversity and Ecology of Microbial Plankton. Nature 2005, 437, 343–348.
A journal article with 3 authors
Jermiin, L.S.; Poladian, L.; Charleston, M.A. Evolution. Is the “Big Bang” in Animal Evolution Real? Science 2005, 310, 1910–1911.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Utada, A.S.; Lorenceau, E.; Link, D.R.; Kaplan, P.D.; Stone, H.A.; Weitz, D.A. Monodisperse Double Emulsions Generated from a Microcapillary Device. Science 2005, 308, 537–541.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Mahlberg, R.; Gilles, A.; Läsch, A. Hämatologie; Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA: Weinheim, Germany, 2004; ISBN 9783527662494.
An edited book
Crowdfunding for SMEs: A European Perspective; Bottiglia, R., Pichler, F., Eds.; Palgrave Macmillan Studies in Banking and Financial Institutions; Palgrave Macmillan UK: London, 2016; ISBN 9781137560209.
A chapter in an edited book
Tomasi, D.; Gaiotti, F.; Jones, G.V. Climate. In The Power of the Terroir: the Case Study of Prosecco Wine; Gaiotti, F., Jones, G.V., Eds.; Springer: Basel, 2013; pp. 31–54 ISBN 9783034806275.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Micromachines.

Blog post
Taub, B. Your Brain Is Designed For Reading Even Before You Learn Your ABCs Available online: (accessed on 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Information Management: Issues Important to Farmers Home Administration Systems Modernization; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1989;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Huang, Y. Sliding Mode Observer Design for Permanent Magnetic Synchronous Generator Based Wind Energy Conversion Systems. Doctoral dissertation, Southern Illinois University: Edwardsville, IL, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kishkovsky, S. Vasily Aksyonov, 76, Exiled Soviet Writer. New York Times 2009, A23.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleMicromachines
AbbreviationMicromachines (Basel)
ISSN (online)2072-666X
ScopeControl and Systems Engineering
Electrical and Electronic Engineering
Mechanical Engineering

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