How to format your references using the Micromachines citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Micromachines. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Roses, A.D. Pharmacogenetics and the practice of medicine. Nature 2000, 405, 857–865.
A journal article with 2 authors
Campbell, I.H.; O’Neill, H.S.C. Evidence against a chondritic Earth. Nature 2012, 483, 553–558.
A journal article with 3 authors
Logvenov, G.; Gozar, A.; Bozovic, I. High-temperature superconductivity in a single copper-oxygen plane. Science 2009, 326, 699–702.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Higashida, C.; Miyoshi, T.; Fujita, A.; Oceguera-Yanez, F.; Monypenny, J.; Andou, Y.; Narumiya, S.; Watanabe, N. Actin polymerization-driven molecular movement of mDia1 in living cells. Science 2004, 303, 2007–2010.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Sundar, V. Ocean Wave Mechanics; John Wiley & Sons, Ltd: Chichester, UK, 2015; ISBN 9781119241652.
An edited book
Transporters as Targets for Drugs; Napier, S., Bingham, M., Eds.; Topics in Medicinal Chemistry; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2009; Vol. 4; ISBN 9783540879114.
A chapter in an edited book
Arnay, R.; Acosta, L.; Sigut, M.; Toledo, J.T. Detection of Non-structured Roads Using Visible and Infrared Images and an Ant Colony Optimization Algorithm. In Nature Inspired Cooperative Strategies for Optimization (NICSO 2008); Krasnogor, N., Melián-Batista, M.B., Pérez, J.A.M., Moreno-Vega, J.M., Pelta, D.A., Eds.; Studies in Computational Intelligence; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2009; pp. 37–47 ISBN 9783642032103.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Micromachines.

Blog post
Luntz, S. Oldest Known Stone Tools Discovered In Kenya (accessed on Oct 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Digests of Decisions of the Comptroller General of the United States, Vol. III, No. 10; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1992;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Kazadi, M.M. Use of Data Fusion and SPC in Vibrations Detection. Doctoral dissertation, Southern Illinois University: Edwardsville, IL, 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Leland, J. The Fighter and the Fight. New York Times 2017, MB8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleMicromachines
AbbreviationMicromachines (Basel)
ISSN (online)2072-666X
ScopeControl and Systems Engineering
Electrical and Electronic Engineering
Mechanical Engineering

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