How to format your references using the Micromachines citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Micromachines. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Keenan, T.F. Phenology: Spring greening in a warming world. Nature 2015, 526, 48–49.
A journal article with 2 authors
Yoo, A.S.; Greenwald, I. LIN-12/Notch activation leads to microRNA-mediated down-regulation of Vav in C. elegans. Science 2005, 310, 1330–1333.
A journal article with 3 authors
Rubie, D.C.; Gessmann, C.K.; Frost, D.J. Partitioning of oxygen during core formation on the Earth and Mars. Nature 2004, 429, 58–61.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Guo, Q.; Kelt, D.A.; Sun, Z.; Liu, H.; Hu, L.; Ren, H.; Wen, J. Global variation in elevational diversity patterns. Sci. Rep. 2013, 3, 3007.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Paul, S. Digital Video Distribution in Broadband, Television, Mobile and Converged Networks; John Wiley & Sons, Ltd: Chichester, UK, 2010; ISBN 9780470972915.
An edited book
Friction Stir Welding and Processing VIII; Mishra, R.S., Mahoney, M.W., Sato, Y., Hovanski, Y., Eds.; Springer International Publishing: Cham, 2016; ISBN 9783319486048.
A chapter in an edited book
Chen, Y.-W.; Lee, Y.-L.; Peng, I.-H. Connection Control by Virtual Admission in Wireless LAN Environment. In Wireless Algorithms, Systems, and Applications: First International Conference, WASA 2006, Xi’an, China, August 15-17, 2006. Proceedings; Cheng, X., Li, W., Znati, T., Eds.; Lecture Notes in Computer Science; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2006; pp. 14–25 ISBN 9783540371892.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Micromachines.

Blog post
Fang, J. New Duck-Billed Dinosaur With A Little Crest Fills An Evolutionary Gap Available online: (accessed on Oct 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Year 2000 Computing Challenge: Readiness Improving Yet Avoiding Disruption of Critical Services Will Require Additional Work; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1999;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Shackelford, V. Mary’s mandala story: Images of chaos in mandala psychology. Doctoral dissertation, Pacifica Graduate Institute: Carpinteria, CA, 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Koblin, J. Elena Ferrante Series Is Coming to HBO. New York Times 2017, C2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleMicromachines
AbbreviationMicromachines (Basel)
ISSN (online)2072-666X
ScopeControl and Systems Engineering
Electrical and Electronic Engineering
Mechanical Engineering

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