How to format your references using the Micromachines citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Micromachines. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Crocker, J.C. Materials Science. Turning Away from High Symmetry. Science 2010, 327, 535–536.
A journal article with 2 authors
Sigala, N.; Logothetis, N.K. Visual Categorization Shapes Feature Selectivity in the Primate Temporal Cortex. Nature 2002, 415, 318–320.
A journal article with 3 authors
Culley, A.I.; Lang, A.S.; Suttle, C.A. High Diversity of Unknown Picorna-like Viruses in the Sea. Nature 2003, 424, 1054–1057.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Moraru, D.; Samanta, A.; Anh, L.T.; Mizuno, T.; Mizuta, H.; Tabe, M. Transport Spectroscopy of Coupled Donors in Silicon Nano-Transistors. Sci. Rep. 2014, 4, 6219.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Schwartz, R. Rethinking Pragmatism; Wiley-Blackwell: Oxford, UK, 2012; ISBN 9781118253687.
An edited book
Emerging Research Directions in Social Entrepreneurship; Pate, L., Wankel, C., Eds.; Advances in Business Ethics Research, A Journal of Business Ethics Book Series; Springer Netherlands: Dordrecht, 2014; Vol. 5; ISBN 9789400778955.
A chapter in an edited book
Nikolay, B. Modeling Development of Deep Horizons of Open Pits. In Mine Planning and Equipment Selection: Proceedings of the 22nd MPES Conference, Dresden, Germany, 14th – 19th October 2013; Drebenstedt, C., Singhal, R., Eds.; Springer International Publishing: Cham, 2014; pp. 43–51 ISBN 9783319026770.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Micromachines.

Blog post
Andrew, D. Should Scientists Engage In Activism? Available online: (accessed on 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Transatlantic Aviation: Effects of Easing Restrictions on U.S.-European Markets; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 2004;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Marjanovic, S.Y. The Role of the Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome Protein in Regulating T Cell Programmed Cell Death Mechanisms and Implications for Autoimmunity in the Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome. Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University: Washington, DC, 2016.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Poniewozik, J. It’s Dark Out There Among the Stars. New York Times 2017, C15.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleMicromachines
AbbreviationMicromachines (Basel)
ISSN (online)2072-666X
ScopeControl and Systems Engineering
Electrical and Electronic Engineering
Mechanical Engineering

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