How to format your references using the Micromachines citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Micromachines. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Goldston, D. Back to School. Nature 2007, 446, 714.
A journal article with 2 authors
Li, C.; Thompson, C.B. Cancer. DNA Damage, Deamidation, and Death. Science 2002, 298, 1346–1347.
A journal article with 3 authors
El-Ali, J.; Sorger, P.K.; Jensen, K.F. Cells on Chips. Nature 2006, 442, 403–411.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Subkhangulov, R.R.; Henriques, A.B.; Rappl, P.H.O.; Abramof, E.; Rasing, T.; Kimel, A.V. All-Optical Manipulation and Probing of the d-f Exchange Interaction in EuTe. Sci. Rep. 2014, 4, 4368.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Norris, L. Transplant Administration; John Wiley & Sons, Ltd: Chichester, UK, 2014; ISBN 9781118391976.
An edited book
Brion, M. Frobenius Splitting Methods in Geometry and Representation Theory; Kumar, S., Ed.; Progress in Mathematics; Birkhäuser: Boston, MA, 2005; Vol. 231; ISBN 9780817641917.
A chapter in an edited book
Cassotta, S.; Hossain, K.; Ren, J.; Goodsite, M.E. Climate Change and Human Security in a Regulatory Multilevel and Multidisciplinary Dimension: The Case of the Arctic Environmental Ocean. In Climate Change Adaptation, Resilience and Hazards; Leal Filho, W., Musa, H., Cavan, G., O’Hare, P., Seixas, J., Eds.; Climate Change Management; Springer International Publishing: Cham, 2016; pp. 71–91 ISBN 9783319398792.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Micromachines.

Blog post
Andrew, E. Extremely Large Telescopes Will Add More Firepower To Search The Cosmos Available online: (accessed on 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Aviation Finance: Distribution of Airport Grant Funds Complied with Statutory Requirements; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 2002;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Janpengpen, A. Monitoring and Forecasting Biosolids Odors at Prior Lime and Post Lime Addition in Wastewater Treatment Plants. Doctoral dissertation, University of Maryland, College Park: College Park, MD, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly, K. From Wall Street to National Mall. New York Times 2017, B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleMicromachines
AbbreviationMicromachines (Basel)
ISSN (online)2072-666X
ScopeControl and Systems Engineering
Electrical and Electronic Engineering
Mechanical Engineering

Other styles