How to format your references using the Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Butler D. Parasitology: Triple genome triumph. Nature. 2005 Jul 21;436(7049):337.
A journal article with 2 authors
Green DR, Kroemer G. The pathophysiology of mitochondrial cell death. Science. 2004 Jul 30;305(5684):626–9.
A journal article with 3 authors
Murthy VR, van Westrenen W, Fei Y. Experimental evidence that potassium is a substantial radioactive heat source in planetary cores. Nature. 2003 May 8;423(6936):163–5.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Foster JS, Khodadad CLM, Ahrendt SR, Parrish ML. Impact of simulated microgravity on the normal developmental time line of an animal-bacteria symbiosis. Sci Rep. 2013;3:1340.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Darbyshire P, Hampton D. Hedge Fund Modelling and Analysis Using MATLAB ®. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2014.
An edited book
Meusburger P, Welker M, Wunder E, editors. Clashes of Knowledge: Orthodoxies and Heterodoxies in Science and Religion. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2008. VIII, 230 p. (Knowledge and Space; vol. 1).
A chapter in an edited book
Ju H, Yang X, Dou H, Song J. Variable Precision Multigranulation Rough Set and Attributes Reduction. In: Peters JF, Skowron A, Li T, Yang Y, Yao J, Nguyen HS, editors. Transactions on Rough Sets XVIII. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2014. p. 52–68. (Lecture Notes in Computer Science).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research.

Blog post
Andrews R. Congress Passes Bill To Recruit More Women Into STEM Careers [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2017 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Local Tax Abatement. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1994 Apr. Report No.: HEHS-94-84R.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Lundahl Philpot E. Social media adoption and use among information technology professionals and implications for leadership [Doctoral dissertation]. [Phoenix, AZ]: University of Phoenix; 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Arvedlund EE, SOPHIA KISHKOVSKY; C.J. Chivers contributed reporting for this article. After a Spate of Bombings, Moscow’s Full of Foreboding. New York Times. 2004 Sep 2;A6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1,2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleCanadian Journal of Veterinary Research
ISSN (online)0830-9000

Other styles