How to format your references using the Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Bosch X. Radical changes urged for Spanish universities. Nature. 2000 Mar 30;404(6777):425–6.
A journal article with 2 authors
Fischer MG, Suttle CA. A virophage at the origin of large DNA transposons. Science. 2011 Apr 8;332(6026):231–4.
A journal article with 3 authors
Ur JA, Karsgaard P, Oates J. Early urban development in the Near East. Science. 2007 Aug 31;317(5842):1188.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Kaspar BK, Lladó J, Sherkat N, Rothstein JD, Gage FH. Retrograde viral delivery of IGF-1 prolongs survival in a mouse ALS model. Science. 2003 Aug 8;301(5634):839–42.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Simon L, Ospina J. Closed-Form Solutions for Drug Transport through Controlled-Release Devices in Two and Three Dimensions. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc; 2015.
An edited book
Borangiu T, Thomas A, Trentesaux D, editors. Service Orientation in Holonic and Multi-agent Manufacturing. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015. XVI, 328 p. 106 illus., 6 illus. in color. (Studies in Computational Intelligence; vol. 594).
A chapter in an edited book
Insall M, Loeb PA, Marciniak MA. General and End Compactifications. In: Loeb PA, Wolff MPH, editors. Nonstandard Analysis for the Working Mathematician. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2015. p. 165–76.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research.

Blog post
Hale T. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Harbor Seal Pup Dies After Being Put In Tote Bag. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Graduate Medical Education: Trends in Training and Student Debt. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2009 May. Report No.: GAO-09-438R.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ekici T. An Investigation of Credit Card Debt: The Effect of Price and Income Expectations and the Impact on Consumption [Doctoral dissertation]. [Columbus, OH]: Ohio State University; 2006.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Shear MD, Goodnough A. President Is Preparing to Declare a National Emergency Over the Opioid Epidemic. New York Times. 2017 Aug 10;A13.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1,2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleCanadian Journal of Veterinary Research
ISSN (online)0830-9000

Other styles