How to format your references using the Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Conrad PG. Planetary science. Scratching the surface of martian habitability. Science. 2014 Dec 12;346(6215):1288–9.
A journal article with 2 authors
Kolodrubetz MH, Petta JR. Applied physics. Coherent holes in a semiconductor quantum dot. Science. 2009 Jul 3;325(5936):42–3.
A journal article with 3 authors
Kelley AM, Michalet X, Weiss S. Chemical physics. Single-molecule spectroscopy comes of age. Science. 2001 Jun 1;292(5522):1671–2.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Jessop PG, Heldebrant DJ, Li X, Eckert CA, Liotta CL. Green chemistry: reversible nonpolar-to-polar solvent. Nature. 2005 Aug 25;436(7054):1102.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Cliteur P. The Secular Outlook. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell; 2010.
An edited book
Kalmykov SN, Denecke MA, editors. Actinide Nanoparticle Research. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2011. XIX, 440 p.
A chapter in an edited book
Kensche D, Quix C, Chatti MA, Jarke M. GeRoMe: A Generic Role Based Metamodel for Model Management. In: Spaccapietra S, Atzeni P, Fages F, Hacid M-S, Kifer M, Mylopoulos J, et al., editors. Journal on Data Semantics VIII. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2007. p. 82–117. (Lecture Notes in Computer Science).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research.

Blog post
Andrew E. Creationism Banned From Science Classes By Scottish Government [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Digital Television Transition: Implementation of the Converter Box Subsidy Program Is Under Way, but Preparedness to Manage an Increase in Subsidy Demand Is Unclear. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2008 Sep. Report No.: GAO-08-1040.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Long RE. Performance Assessment of Predicted Heat Strain in High Heat Stress Exposures [Doctoral dissertation]. [Tampa, FL]: University of South Florida; 2011.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kishkovsky S. Bolshoi Official Raises Attack Questions. New York Times. 2013 Mar 12;C3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1,2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleCanadian Journal of Veterinary Research
ISSN (online)0830-9000

Other styles