How to format your references using the Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Ledford H. Epigenetics: The genome unwrapped. Nature. 2015 Dec 3;528(7580):S12-3.
A journal article with 2 authors
Lo JA, Fisher DE. The melanoma revolution: from UV carcinogenesis to a new era in therapeutics. Science. 2014 Nov 21;346(6212):945–9.
A journal article with 3 authors
Chen YZ, Huang ZG, Lai YC. Controlling extreme events on complex networks. Sci Rep. 2014 Aug 18;4:6121.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Zhang JZ, Mordy CW, Gordon LI, Ross A, Garcia HE, Pahlow M, et al. Temporal trends in deep ocean redfield ratios. Science. 2000 Sep 15;289(5486):1839a.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Schaik CPV. The Primate Origins of Human Nature. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc; 2015.
An edited book
Gleizes MP, Omicini A, Zambonelli F, editors. Engineering Societies in the Agents World V: 5th International Workshop, ESAW 2004, Toulouse, France, October 20-22, 2004. Revised Selected and Invited Papers. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2005. XIV, 354 p. (Lecture Notes in Computer Science; vol. 3451).
A chapter in an edited book
Eaton DJ, Schneider F. Radiation Protection. In: Keshtgar M, Pigott K, Wenz F, editors. Targeted Intraoperative Radiotherapy in Oncology. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2014. p. 37–43.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research.

Blog post
Fang J. For Healthy Bird Development, Multiple Sperm Must Penetrate The Egg [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Evaluation of the Department of the Army’s Personnel and Cost Estimates for an Electronics Research and Development Command. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1976 Nov. Report No.: LCD-76-465.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Harvey J. Predicting Cost-Inflicting Mate Retention Tactic Use in Women with Borderline Personality Features: Examining the Roles of Maladaptive Schemas and Reactive Aggression [Doctoral dissertation]. [Edwardsville, IL]: Southern Illinois University; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wagner J. ‘Madman’ On Mound, Coolheaded Off the Field. New York Times. 2017 Oct 25;B12.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1,2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleCanadian Journal of Veterinary Research
ISSN (online)0830-9000

Other styles