How to format your references using the Microgravity Science and Technology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Microgravity Science and Technology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Goodman, S.: The familial balancing act. Nature. 433, 552–553 (2005)
A journal article with 2 authors
Carmeliet, P., Tessier-Lavigne, M.: Common mechanisms of nerve and blood vessel wiring. Nature. 436, 193–200 (2005)
A journal article with 3 authors
Wichterle, H., Gifford, D., Mazzoni, E.: Neuroscience. Mapping neuronal diversity one cell at a time. Science. 341, 726–727 (2013)
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Watters, T.R., Head, J.W., Solomon, S.C., Robinson, M.S., Chapman, C.R., Denevi, B.W., Fassett, C.I., Murchie, S.L., Strom, R.G.: Evolution of the Rembrandt impact basin on Mercury. Science. 324, 618–621 (2009)

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Zauderer, E.: Partial Differential Equations of Applied Mathematics. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ (2006)
An edited book
Torza, A. ed: Quantifiers, Quantifiers, and Quantifiers: Themes in Logic, Metaphysics, and Language. Springer International Publishing, Cham (2015)
A chapter in an edited book
Ibach, H., Lüth, H.: Thermal Properties. In: Lüth, H. (ed.) Solid-State Physics: An Introduction to Principles of Materials Science. pp. 113–134. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg (2009)

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Microgravity Science and Technology.

Blog post
Andrew, E.: This Is The Microorganism-Laden Handprint Of An 8-Year-Old After Playing Outdoors


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Adult Education: Measuring Program Results Has Been Challenging. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (1995)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Mikhailik, Y.: Longing Limned, (2013)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Schmitt, E.: U.S. Says Its ISIS Fight Isn’t Raising Civilian Risks, (2017)

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Goodman 2005).
This sentence cites two references (Carmeliet and Tessier-Lavigne 2005; Goodman 2005).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Carmeliet and Tessier-Lavigne 2005)
  • Three or more authors: (Watters et al. 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleMicrogravity Science and Technology
AbbreviationMicrogravity Sci. Technol.
ISSN (print)0938-0108
ISSN (online)1875-0494
ScopeGeneral Engineering
Applied Mathematics
Modelling and Simulation
General Physics and Astronomy

Other styles