How to format your references using the Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Short, R.V., 2000. Where do babies come from? Nature 403, 705.
A journal article with 2 authors
Hayes, R.A., Feenstra, B.J., 2003. Video-speed electronic paper based on electrowetting. Nature 425, 383–385.
A journal article with 3 authors
Conrad, C.P., Steinberger, B., Torsvik, T.H., 2013. Stability of active mantle upwelling revealed by net characteristics of plate tectonics. Nature 498, 479–482.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Yamamoto, E., Akimoto, T., Yasui, M., Yasuoka, K., 2014. Origin of subdiffusion of water molecules on cell membrane surfaces. Sci. Rep. 4, 4720.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Weston, P., 2006. Bioinformatics Software Engineering. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Futral, W., 2013. Intel® Trusted Execution Technology for Server Platforms: A Guide to More Secure Datacenters. Apress, Berkeley, CA.
A chapter in an edited book
Sudnik, N., Kholtygin, A., 2013. Non-radial Pulsation and Magnetic Fields of OB Stars, in: Suárez, J.C., Garrido, R., Balona, L.A., Christensen-Dalsgaard, J. (Eds.), Stellar Pulsations: Impact of New Instrumentation and New Insights, Astrophysics and Space Science Proceedings. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 23–26.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research.

Blog post
Andrew, D., 2016. Traveling To Mars With Immortal Plasma Rockets [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1982. Validity and Comparability of Quantitative Data Presented by the President’s Council on Integrity and Efficiency on Inspectors General Activities (No. AFMD-82-78). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Lizarraga, D., 2017. Effects of large inedible particles on the feeding performance of echinodem larvae (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Shear, M.D., Nixon, R., 2017. More Immigrants Face Deportation Under New Rules. New York Times A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Short, 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Hayes and Feenstra, 2003; Short, 2000).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Hayes and Feenstra, 2003)
  • Three or more authors: (Yamamoto et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research
AbbreviationJ. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res.
ISSN (print)0377-0273
ScopeGeochemistry and Petrology

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