How to format your references using the Journal of Biomedical and Therapeutic Sciences citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Biomedical and Therapeutic Sciences. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
J. Chambers. Planetary science: Archaeology of the asteroid belt. Nature 2009, 460 (7258), 963–964.
A journal article with 2 authors
P.G. Tuthill, J.P. Lloyd. A symmetric bipolar nebula around MWC 922. Science 2007, 316 (5822), 247.
A journal article with 3 authors
M. Ozaki, J.-I. Kato, S. Kawata. Surface-plasmon holography with white-light illumination. Science 2011, 332 (6026), 218–220.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
V. Vásquez, M. Sotomayor, J. Cordero-Morales, K. Schulten, E. Perozo. A structural mechanism for MscS gating in lipid bilayers. Science 2008, 321 (5893), 1210–1214.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
R.P. Mason. Trace Metals in Aquatic Systems; John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK, 2013.
An edited book
D.S. Bridges. Apartness and Uniformity: A Constructive Development; Vîţă, L. S., Ed.; Theory and Applications of Computability, In cooperation with the association Computability in Europe; Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
C.A. Rogers. The Geometry Of Numbers. In Teoria dei numeri; Ricci, G., Ed.; Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2011; pp 97–150.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Biomedical and Therapeutic Sciences.

Blog post
E. Andrew. Neurons In Your Skin Do Math (accessed Oct 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Kachemak Bay Ferry: Federally Funded Ferry Was Constructed with Limited Oversight and Faces Future Operating Challenges; GAO-12-559; U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2012.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
J.M. Riley. Was Sloth the Ultimate Slow Food? An Archaeological Examination of Padre Nuestro Cavern, Dominican Republic. Doctoral dissertation, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
M. Corkery, J. Silver-Greenberg. Store-Branded Credit Cards Buoy Struggling Retailers, but Mask Their Pain. New York Times. May 11, 2017, p A16.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Biomedical and Therapeutic Sciences
ISSN (print)2394-2274

Other styles