How to format your references using the Journal of Biomedical and Therapeutic Sciences citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Biomedical and Therapeutic Sciences. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
J. Podos. Correlated evolution of morphology and vocal signal structure in Darwin’s finches. Nature 2001, 409 (6817), 185–188.
A journal article with 2 authors
A.J. Ammerman, C.E. McClennen. URBAN ECOLOGY: Saving Venice. Science 2000, 289 (5483), 1301–1302.
A journal article with 3 authors
J.E. Penner, L.D. Rotstayn, T.J. Crowley. Indirect aerosol forcing. Science 2000, 290 (5491), 407a.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
S.M. Shaffer, M.C. Dunagin, S.R. Torborg, et al. Corrigendum: Rare cell variability and drug-induced reprogramming as a mode of cancer drug resistance. Nature 2018, 555 (7695), 274.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
F. Riehle. Frequency Standards; Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, FRG, 2003.
An edited book
Evolvable Systems: From Biology to Hardware: 7th International Conference, ICES 2007, Wuhan, China, September 21-23, 2007 Proceedings; Kang, L., Liu, Y., Zeng, S., Eds.; Lecture Notes in Computer Science; Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2007; Vol. 4684.
A chapter in an edited book
F. Zhao, F.F. Dai. Design and Analysis of A Low Power QVCO with Capacitive-Coupling Technique. In Low-Noise Low-Power Design for Phase-Locked Loops: Multi-Phase High-Performance Oscillators; Dai, F. F., Ed.; Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2015; pp 67–94.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Biomedical and Therapeutic Sciences.

Blog post
J. Davis. Scientists Fed Volunteers 6,000 Calories For Science (accessed Oct 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Human Resources Information Systems Issue Area: Active Assignments; AA-95-34(3); U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1995.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
V. Shackelford. Mary’s mandala story: Images of chaos in mandala psychology. Doctoral dissertation, Pacifica Graduate Institute, Carpinteria, CA, 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
M.D. Shear, R. Nixon, A. Liptak. Justices Cancel Hearing on Travel Ban as Questions Linger on New Policy. New York Times. September 25, 2017, p A12.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Biomedical and Therapeutic Sciences
ISSN (print)2394-2274

Other styles