How to format your references using the Microbiology Spectrum citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Microbiology Spectrum. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1.
Smith BE. 2002. Structure. Nitrogenase reveals its inner secrets. Science 297:1654–1655.
A journal article with 2 authors
1.
Silver PG, Holt WE. 2002. The mantle flow field beneath western North America. Science 295:1054–1057.
A journal article with 3 authors
1.
Provencio I, Rollag MD, Castrucci AM. 2002. Photoreceptive net in the mammalian retina. This mesh of cells may explain how some blind mice can still tell day from night. Nature 415:493.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
1.
Zhou D, Liu S, Oeding J, Zhao S. 2013. Forest cutting and impacts on carbon in the eastern United States. Sci Rep 3:3547.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1.
Razik H. 2013. Handbook of Asynchronous Machine with Variable Speed. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
1.
André FJ. 2010. Designing Public Policies: An Approach Based on Multi-Criteria Analysis and Computable General Equilibrium Modeling. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
1.
Fuhr N. 2014. Bridging Information Retrieval and Databases, p. 97–115. In Ferro, N (ed.), Bridging Between Information Retrieval and Databases: PROMISE Winter School 2013, Bressanone, Italy, February 4-8, 2013. Revised Tutorial Lectures. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Microbiology Spectrum.

Blog post
1.
Andrews R. 2016. Low-Carbohydrate Diets May Be Useless For Weight Loss. IFLScience. IFLScience.

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1.
Government Accountability Office. 2013. Public Transit: FTA’s Process for Overseeing Compliance with Federal Civil Rights Requirements Incorporates Key Federal Practices. GAO-13-697R. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1.
Eastwood JL. 2010. The effects of an interdisciplinary undergraduate human biology program on socioscientific reasoning, content learning, and understanding of inquiry. Doctoral dissertation, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1.
(nyt) SK. 2004. World Briefing | Europe: Russia: Apartment Toll At 58. New York Times.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1, 2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleMicrobiology Spectrum
AbbreviationMicrobiol. Spectr.
ISSN (online)2165-0497
ScopeCell Biology
Genetics
Physiology
Ecology
General Immunology and Microbiology
Infectious Diseases
Microbiology (medical)

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