How to format your references using the Population Ecology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Population Ecology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
MacNeil S (2007) Progress and opportunities for tissue-engineered skin. Nature 445:874–880
A journal article with 2 authors
Stengel M, Spaldin NA (2006) Origin of the dielectric dead layer in nanoscale capacitors. Nature 443:679–682
A journal article with 3 authors
Perlo J, Casanova F, Blümich B (2007) Ex situ NMR in highly homogeneous fields: 1H spectroscopy. Science 315:1110–1112
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Guss KA, Nelson CE, Hudson A, et al (2001) Control of a genetic regulatory network by a selector gene. Science 292:1164–1167

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Brown MA, Kaplan L (2012) The Advanced Practice Registered Nurse as a Prescriber. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., West Sussex, UK
An edited book
Lorenz P, Dini P (eds) (2005) Networking - ICN 2005: 4th International Conference on Networking, Reunion Island, France, April 17-21, 2005, Proceedings, Part II. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Bergbreiter S, Gerratt AP, Vogtmann D (2014) Progress Toward Mobility in Microfabricated Millirobots. In: Paprotny I, Bergbreiter S (eds) Small-Scale Robotics. From Nano-to-Millimeter-Sized Robotic Systems and Applications: First International Workshop at ICRA 2013, Karlsruhe, Germany, May 6, 2013, Revised and Extended Papers. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 39–52

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Population Ecology.

Blog post
Hale T (2016) New Claim Adds More Madness To The Bermuda Triangle Theories. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1983) Use of Federally Supported Research Facilities. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Moore AM (2010) Assessing the demand for simplified stormwater modeling tools within the design profession to facilitate the adoption of sustainable stormwater practices. Doctoral dissertation, Mississippi State University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
David Goodman J, Schweber N (2015) Gunman Kills One and Wounds Two Near Penn Station. New York Times A19

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (MacNeil 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Stengel and Spaldin 2006; MacNeil 2007).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Stengel and Spaldin 2006)
  • Three or more authors: (Guss et al. 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titlePopulation Ecology
AbbreviationPopul. Ecol.
ISSN (print)1438-3896
ISSN (online)1438-390X
ScopeEcology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics

Other styles