How to format your references using the Population Ecology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Population Ecology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Jarrold MF (2000) The smallest fullerene. Nature 407:26–27
A journal article with 2 authors
Kai L, Kaldenhoff R (2014) A refined model of water and CO₂ membrane diffusion: effects and contribution of sterols and proteins. Sci Rep 4:6665
A journal article with 3 authors
Soukoulis CM, Linden S, Wegener M (2007) Physics. Negative refractive index at optical wavelengths. Science 315:47–49
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Castillo PE, Schoch S, Schmitz F, et al (2002) RIM1alpha is required for presynaptic long-term potentiation. Nature 415:327–330

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Eisner H (2005) Managing Complex Systems. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Makin HLJ, Gower DB (eds) (2010) Steroid Analysis. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht
A chapter in an edited book
Bavry AA, Kumbhani DJ (2012) Peripheral interventions. In: Kumbhani DJ (ed) Indications and techniques of percutaneous procedures: Coronary, peripheral, and structural heart disease. Springer Healthcare Ltd., Tarporley, pp 29–60

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Population Ecology.

Blog post
Andrew E (2015) Cooking The Books: When That Sensational New Research Finding Isn’t All It Seems. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2011) Transportation Security Infrastructure Modernization May Enhance DHS Screening Capabilities, but It Is Too Early to Assess Results. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Rey D (2017) Chaos, Observability and Symplectic Structure in Optimal Estimation. Doctoral dissertation, University of California San Diego

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Brantley B (2017) Scare Easily? You’re in the Wrong Place. New York Times C6

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Jarrold 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Jarrold 2000; Kai and Kaldenhoff 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Kai and Kaldenhoff 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Castillo et al. 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titlePopulation Ecology
AbbreviationPopul. Ecol.
ISSN (print)1438-3896
ISSN (online)1438-390X
ScopeEcology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics

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