How to format your references using the Population Ecology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Population Ecology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Couzin I (2007) Collective minds. Nature 445:715
A journal article with 2 authors
Finch CE, Crimmins EM (2004) Inflammatory exposure and historical changes in human life-spans. Science 305:1736–1739
A journal article with 3 authors
Marston JO, Riker PW, Thoroddsen ST (2014) Generation of ultra-sound during tape peeling. Sci Rep 4:4326
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Brissett NC, Pitcher RS, Juarez R, et al (2007) Structure of a NHEJ polymerase-mediated DNA synaptic complex. Science 318:456–459

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Pozen R, Hamacher T, Phillips D (2011) The Fund Industry. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Vos PD, Garrity GM, Jones D, et al (eds) (2009) Bergey’s Manual® of Systematic Bacteriology: Volume Three The Firmicutes, Second Edition. Springer, New York, NY
A chapter in an edited book
Benedettini S, Roli A, Serra R, Villani M (2014) Automatic Design of Boolean Networks for Modelling Cell Differentiation. In: Cagnoni S, Mirolli M, Villani M (eds) Evolution, Complexity and Artificial Life. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 77–89

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Population Ecology.

Blog post
Andrew E (2015) How To Light A Candle With Smoke. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2002) Telecommunications: History and Current Issues Related to Radio Spectrum Management. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Knight M (2012) Technological Advancement in Conflict Assessment: A Case Study of the Fund for Peace’s Universal Network of Local Knowledge in Liberia. Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Baker P (2017) Reluctantly, Trump Recertifies Iran’s Compliance With Nuclear Agreement. New York Times A7

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Couzin 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Finch and Crimmins 2004; Couzin 2007).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Finch and Crimmins 2004)
  • Three or more authors: (Brissett et al. 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titlePopulation Ecology
AbbreviationPopul. Ecol.
ISSN (print)1438-3896
ISSN (online)1438-390X
ScopeEcology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics

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