How to format your references using the Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Rubin, D. C. (2014). Psychology. How quickly we forget. Science (New York, N.Y.), 346(6213), 1058–1059.
A journal article with 2 authors
Mishra, S. K., & Hoon, M. A. (2013). The cells and circuitry for itch responses in mice. Science (New York, N.Y.), 340(6135), 968–971.
A journal article with 3 authors
Turney, C. S. M., Roberts, R. G., & Jacobs, Z. (2006). Archaeology: progress and pitfalls in radiocarbon dating. Nature, 443(7108), E3; discussion E4.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Baldwin, S. L., Monteleone, B. D., Webb, L. E., Fitzgerald, P. G., Grove, M., & Hill, E. J. (2004). Pliocene eclogite exhumation at plate tectonic rates in eastern Papua New Guinea. Nature, 431(7006), 263–267.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Davis, J. H. (2011). Statistics for Compensation. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Drieschner, M. (Ed.). (2014). Carl Friedrich von Weizsäcker: Major Texts in Philosophy (Vol. 23). Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Sobhani-Tehrani, E., & Khorasani, K. (2009). Application to a Satellite’s Attitude Control Subsystem. In K. Khorasani (Ed.), Fault Diagnosis of Nonlinear Systems Using a Hybrid Approach (pp. 99–217). Boston, MA: Springer US.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth.

Blog post
Carpineti, A. (2017, March 14). Third Law Of Thermodynamics Proven By Finding The Maximum Speed Of Cooling. Retrieved October 30, 2018, from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2007). Federal Aviation Administration: Viability of Current Funding Structure for Aviation Activities and Observations on Funding Provisions of Reauthorization Proposals (No. GAO-07-1104T). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Reese, N. E. (2015). The Ecomorphology of White-tailed Deer Lower Limb Bones Through the Holocene in Central North America (Doctoral dissertation). Southern Illinois University, Edwardsville, IL.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Saslow, L. (2007, July 22). Jones Inlet to Be Dredged Despite Money Dispute. New York Times, p. LI2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Rubin, 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Mishra & Hoon, 2013; Rubin, 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Mishra & Hoon, 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (Baldwin et al., 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth
AbbreviationJ. Geophys. Res. Solid Earth
ISSN (print)2169-9313
ISSN (online)2169-9356

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