How to format your references using the Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Smaglik, P. (2004). Alternative paths. Nature, 430(6998), 485.
A journal article with 2 authors
Bianco, P., & Robey, P. G. (2001). Stem cells in tissue engineering. Nature, 414(6859), 118–121.
A journal article with 3 authors
Noble, M. E. M., Endicott, J. A., & Johnson, L. N. (2004). Protein kinase inhibitors: insights into drug design from structure. Science (New York, N.Y.), 303(5665), 1800–1805.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
El Goresy, A., Chen, M., Dubrovinsky, L., Gillet, P., & Graup, G. (2001). An ultradense polymorph of rutile with seven-coordinated titanium from the Ries crater. Science (New York, N.Y.), 293(5534), 1467–1470.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Zanotto, E. D. (2013). Crystals in Glass. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Chan, A. W. H. (2014). Atlas of Liver Pathology. (A. Quaglia, B. Haugk, & A. Burt, Eds.). New York, NY: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Vidal, M.-E., Castillo, S., Acosta, M., Montoya, G., & Palma, G. (2016). On the Selection of SPARQL Endpoints to Efficiently Execute Federated SPARQL Queries. In A. Hameurlain, J. Küng, & R. Wagner (Eds.), Transactions on Large-Scale Data- and Knowledge-Centered Systems XXV (pp. 109–149). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth.

Blog post
Davis, J. (2016, May 15). Dying Coral Reefs May Mask The Scent Of Predators. Retrieved October 30, 2018, from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2003). Human Capital Management: FAA’s Reform Effort Requires a More Strategic Approach (No. GAO-03-156). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Sanford, R. (2015). Framing Human Trafficking: A Content Analysis of Newspaper Articles from 2012 and 2013 (Doctoral dissertation). George Washington University, Washington, DC.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Crow, K. (2003, June 29). Reservoir’s Sunken Fountain Is Rising From the Deep. New York Times, p. 145.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Smaglik, 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Bianco & Robey, 2001; Smaglik, 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Bianco & Robey, 2001)
  • Three or more authors: (El Goresy et al., 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth
AbbreviationJ. Geophys. Res. Solid Earth
ISSN (print)2169-9313
ISSN (online)2169-9356

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