How to format your references using the Microbiology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Microbiology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1.
Sincell M. NanoManipulator Lets Chemists Go Mano a Mano With Molecules. Science 2000;290:1530.
A journal article with 2 authors
1.
Xiong Y, Steitz TA. Mechanism of transfer RNA maturation by CCA-adding enzyme without using an oligonucleotide template. Nature 2004;430:640–645.
A journal article with 3 authors
1.
Møller PR, Nielsen JG, Fossen I. Fish migration: Patagonian toothfish found off Greenland. Nature 2003;421:599.
A journal article with 6 or more authors
1.
Zhao Z-G, Zhang J, Yuan Y, Lv H, Tian Y, et al. In-situ formation of cobalt-phosphate oxygen-evolving complex-anchored reduced graphene oxide nanosheets for oxygen reduction reaction. Sci Rep 2013;3:2263.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1.
Levin R. Implementing the Wealth Management Index. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2011.
An edited book
1.
Haensel P, Potekhin AY, Yakovlev DG (eds). Neutron Stars 1. New York, NY: Springer; 2007.
A chapter in an edited book
1.
Disma N, Astuto M. Central Venous Cannulation Techniques. In: Astuto M (editor). Basics. Milano: Springer; 2009. pp. 49–59.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Microbiology.

Blog post
1.
O`Callaghan J. Scientists Develop Ice Cream That Doesn’t Melt In The Heat. IFLScience.

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1.
Government Accountability Office. Designing Evaluations: A Workbook. 129366; Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1 February 1986.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1.
Claar PL. A Correlational Study Comparing the Relationship between School Leader Intercultural Development, Selected Demographic Variables, and Student Achievement. Doctoral Dissertation; Pepperdine University; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1.
Greenhouse L. Justices Weigh Whether Railroad Retaliated Against Worker. New York Times, 18 April 2006, p. A24.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleMicrobiology
AbbreviationMicrobiology
ISSN (print)1350-0872
ISSN (online)1465-2080
ScopeMicrobiology

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