How to format your references using the Bioengineering citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Bioengineering. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Clary, D.C. Quantum dynamics of chemical reactions. Science 2008, 321, 789–791.
A journal article with 2 authors
Schultz, R.M.; Williams, C.J. The science of ART. Science 2002, 296, 2188–2190.
A journal article with 3 authors
Lyons, J.R.; Lewis, R.S.; Clayton, R.N. Comment on “Experimental test of self-shielding in vacuum ultraviolet photodissociation of CO.” Science 2009, 324, 1516;author reply 1516.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Markiewicz, W.J.; Titov, D.V.; Limaye, S.S.; Keller, H.U.; Ignatiev, N.; Jaumann, R.; Thomas, N.; Michalik, H.; Moissl, R.; Russo, P. Morphology and dynamics of the upper cloud layer of Venus. Nature 2007, 450, 633–636.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Gallant, B.J. Hazardous Waste Operations and Emergency Response Manual; John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: Hoboken, NJ, 2006; ISBN 9780470007259.
An edited book
Objective Structured Clinical Examinations: 10 Steps to Planning and Implementing OSCEs and Other Standardized Patient Exercises; Zabar, S., Kachur, E., Kalet, A., Hanley, K., Eds.; Springer: New York, NY, 2013; ISBN 9781461437482.
A chapter in an edited book
Bertoni, A.; Folgieri, R.; Valentini, G. Feature Selection Combined with Random Subspace Ensemble for Gene Expression Based Diagnosis of Malignancies. In Biological and Artificial Intelligence Environments: 15th Italian Workshop on Neural Nets, WIRN VIETRI 2004; Apolloni, B., Marinaro, M., Tagliaferri, R., Eds.; Springer Netherlands: Dordrecht, 2005; pp. 29–35 ISBN 9781402034312.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Bioengineering.

Blog post
Hale, T. Girls Are Put Off Science Because STEM Toys Are Branded As Boy’s Toys, Research Says Available online: (accessed on Oct 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Support for Development of Electronics and Materials Technologies by the Governments of the United States, Japan, West Germany, France, and the United Kingdom; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1985;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Gilbert, C. Factors Associated With Dietetic Interns’ Knowledge of Sodium and the 2015 Dietary Guidelines for Americans. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach: Long Beach, CA, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hubbard, B. Overlooking Slights by Trump, Saudis Plan a Lavish Welcome. New York Times 2017, A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleBioengineering
AbbreviationBioengineering (Basel)
ISSN (online)2306-5354

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