How to format your references using the Bioengineering citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Bioengineering. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Crutzen, P.J. A Late Change to the Programme. Nature 2004, 429, 349.
A journal article with 2 authors
Hood, L.; Galas, D. The Digital Code of DNA. Nature 2003, 421, 444–448.
A journal article with 3 authors
Ackman, J.B.; Burbridge, T.J.; Crair, M.C. Retinal Waves Coordinate Patterned Activity throughout the Developing Visual System. Nature 2012, 490, 219–225.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Chang, C.-Y.; Krishnan, T.; Wang, H.; Chen, Y.; Yin, W.-F.; Chong, Y.-M.; Tan, L.Y.; Chong, T.M.; Chan, K.-G. Non-Antibiotic Quorum Sensing Inhibitors Acting against N-Acyl Homoserine Lactone Synthase as Druggable Target. Sci. Rep. 2014, 4, 7245.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bayor, R.H. Fiorello La Guardia; John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: Hoboken, NJ, 2017; ISBN 9781119374794.
An edited book
Sustainable Agriculture Reviews: Volume 17; Lichtfouse, E., Ed.; Sustainable Agriculture Reviews; 1st ed. 2015.; Springer International Publishing: Cham, 2015; Vol. 17; ISBN 9783319167411.
A chapter in an edited book
Krueger, G.R.F.; Wagner, M.; Chandrasekhar, C. Pathology of the Gastrointestinal Tract. In Atlas of Anatomic Pathology with Imaging: A Correlative Diagnostic Companion; Krueger, G.R.F., Buja, L.M., Eds.; Springer: London, 2013; pp. 191–230 ISBN 9781447128458.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Bioengineering.

Blog post
Andrew, E. This Alloy Can Withstand 10 Million Transformations Available online: (accessed on 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office ADP, IRM & Telecommunications, 1985; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1986;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Hoffer, H. Aesthetics of Destruction: Music and the Worldview of Ikari Shinji in “Neon Genesis Evangelion.” Doctoral dissertation, University of Arizona: Tucson, AZ, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey, G. The Star Who Stood Out By Not Standing Out. New York Times 2013, D1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleBioengineering
AbbreviationBioengineering (Basel)
ISSN (online)2306-5354

Other styles