How to format your references using the Bioengineering citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Bioengineering. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Beall, J. Predatory publishers are corrupting open access. Nature 2012, 489, 179.
A journal article with 2 authors
Volz, J.; Rauschenbeutel, A. Physics. Two atoms announce their long-distance relationship. Science 2012, 337, 40–41.
A journal article with 3 authors
Legramandi, M.A.; Schepens, B.; Cavagna, G.A. Running humans attain optimal elastic bounce in their teens. Sci. Rep. 2013, 3, 1310.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Rose, B.C.; Huang, D.; Zhang, Z.-H.; Stevenson, P.; Tyryshkin, A.M.; Sangtawesin, S.; Srinivasan, S.; Loudin, L.; Markham, M.L.; Edmonds, A.M.; et al. Observation of an environmentally insensitive solid-state spin defect in diamond. Science 2018, 361, 60–63.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Mashadi, B.; Crolla, D. Vehicle Powertrain Systems; John Wiley & Sons, Ltd: Chichester, UK, 2012; ISBN 9781119958376.
An edited book
Nitrogen Deposition, Critical Loads and Biodiversity; Sutton, M.A., Mason, K.E., Sheppard, L.J., Sverdrup, H., Haeuber, R., Hicks, W.K., Eds.; Springer Netherlands: Dordrecht, 2014; ISBN 9789400779389.
A chapter in an edited book
Procopiou, M.; Meier, C.A. Evaluation of Thyroid Nodules. In Surgery of the Thyroid and Parathyroid Glands; Oertli, D., Udelsman, R., Eds.; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2007; pp. 45–60 ISBN 9783540291657.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Bioengineering.

Blog post
Davis, J. US Beekeepers Lost 40% Of Bees Last Year Alone Available online: (accessed on Oct 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Evolved Expendable Launch Vehicle: Introducing Competition into National Security Space Launch Acquisitions; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 2014;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Mazgaeen, L. Differential RNAi Approaches to Enhance Knockdown Efficiency of Target Gene Transcripts in the Highly DDT-Resistant 91-R Strain of Drosophila melanogaster. Doctoral dissertation, Southern Illinois University: Edwardsville, IL, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Peters, J.F.; Nikas, J.; Lyons, E. Youth in San Diego: Skateboards, Beach Hangs and Chicano Culture. New York Times 2017, ST4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleBioengineering
AbbreviationBioengineering (Basel)
ISSN (online)2306-5354

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