How to format your references using the Bioengineering citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Bioengineering. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Ray, L.B. Metabolism. Metabolism is not boring. Introduction. Science 2010, 330, 1337.
A journal article with 2 authors
Liu, Y.; Imlay, J.A. Cell death from antibiotics without the involvement of reactive oxygen species. Science 2013, 339, 1210–1213.
A journal article with 3 authors
Blumenstock, J.; Cadamuro, G.; On, R. Predicting poverty and wealth from mobile phone metadata. Science 2015, 350, 1073–1076.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Dahl, C.D.; Rasch, M.J.; Tomonaga, M.; Adachi, I. The face inversion effect in non-human primates revisited - an investigation in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). Sci. Rep. 2013, 3, 2504.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Center for Chemical Process Safety Guidelines for Engineering Design for Process Safety; John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: Hoboken, NJ, 2012; ISBN 9781118265949.
An edited book
Granneman, S. Mac OS X Snow Leopard for Power Users; Andres, C., Pundick, D., Anglin, S., Beckner, M., Buckingham, E., Cornell, G., Gennick, J., Hassell, J., Lowman, M., Moodie, M., Parkes, D., Pepper, J., Pohlmann, F., Renow-Clarke, B., Shakeshaft, D., Wade, M., Welsh, T., Moritz, K., Moore, R., Eds.; Apress: Berkeley, CA, 2010; ISBN 9781430230304.
A chapter in an edited book
Kriz, I.; Pultr, A. Integration I: Multivariable Riemann Integral and Basic Ideas Toward the Lebesgue Integral. In Introduction to Mathematical Analysis; Pultr, A., Ed.; Springer: Basel, 2013; pp. 97–116 ISBN 9783034806350.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Bioengineering.

Blog post
Luntz, S. How Horseshoe Crab Blood Saves Millions Of Lives Available online: (accessed on Oct 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Reports Issued in June 1988; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1988;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Marcheschi, R.L. Knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding individuals with epilepsy by marriage and family therapists and social workers. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach: Long Beach, CA, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse, L. A Case-by-Case Ruling on Discrimination. New York Times 2008, A17.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleBioengineering
AbbreviationBioengineering (Basel)
ISSN (online)2306-5354

Other styles