How to format your references using the Bioengineering citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Bioengineering. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kraus, V.B. Osteoarthritis: The Zinc Link. Nature 2014, 507, 441–442.
A journal article with 2 authors
Dandekar, P.; Doherty, M.F. Materials Science. Imaging Crystallization. Science 2014, 344, 705–706.
A journal article with 3 authors
Nielsen, H.; Westhof, E.; Johansen, S. An MRNA Is Capped by a 2’, 5’ Lariat Catalyzed by a Group I-like Ribozyme. Science 2005, 309, 1584–1587.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Marley, R.; Giachello, C.N.G.; Scrutton, N.S.; Baines, R.A.; Jones, A.R. Cryptochrome-Dependent Magnetic Field Effect on Seizure Response in Drosophila Larvae. Sci. Rep. 2014, 4, 5799.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Ahmad, A. Wireless and Mobile Data Networks; John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: Hoboken, NJ, 2005; ISBN 9780471729228.
An edited book
The Royal Navy and the British Atlantic World, c. 1750–1820; McAleer, J., Petley, C., Eds.; Palgrave Macmillan UK: London, 2016; ISBN 9781137507648.
A chapter in an edited book
Nácul, F.E. Vasopressors and Inotropes. In Surgical Intensive Care Medicine; O’Donnell, J.M., Nácul, F.E., Eds.; Springer International Publishing: Cham, 2016; pp. 55–60 ISBN 9783319196671.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Bioengineering.

Blog post
Hale, T. Norway May Sell Only Electric Cars By 2025 Available online: (accessed on 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office DHS Research and Development: Science and Technology Directorate’s Test and Evaluation and Reorganization Efforts; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 2011;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Green, R.E. From Hart to Hammerstein: The Music of Richard Rodgers and His Evolution toward the Integrated Musical. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach: Long Beach, CA, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Shpigel, B. Fourth Passer? Jets May Go Deep. New York Times 2016, B11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleBioengineering
AbbreviationBioengineering (Basel)
ISSN (online)2306-5354

Other styles