How to format your references using the Microbiological Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Microbiological Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kreeger, K., 2002. Does travel broaden the scientific mind? Nature 419, 5.
A journal article with 2 authors
Peel, M.C., McMahon, T.A., 2006. Continental runoff: a quality-controlled global runoff data set. Nature 444, E14; discussion E14-5.
A journal article with 3 authors
Han, C., Ding, H., Lv, F., 2014. Demonstration of a refractometric sensor based on an optical micro-fiber three-beam interferometer. Sci. Rep. 4, 7504.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Menuz, V., Howell, K.S., Gentina, S., Epstein, S., Riezman, I., Fornallaz-Mulhauser, M., Hengartner, M.O., Gomez, M., Riezman, H., Martinou, J.-C., 2009. Protection of C. elegans from anoxia by HYL-2 ceramide synthase. Science 324, 381–384.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Zito, R., 2011. Electrochemical Water Processing. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Wolschin, G. (Ed.), 2010. Lectures on Cosmology: Accelerated Expansion of the Universe, Lecture Notes in Physics. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Auger, P., de la Parra, R.B., Poggiale, J.-C., Sánchez, E., Nguyen-Huu, T., 2008. Aggregation of Variables and Applications to Population Dynamics, in: Magal, P., Ruan, S. (Eds.), Structured Population Models in Biology and Epidemiology, Lecture Notes in Mathematics. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 209–263.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Microbiological Research.

Blog post
Luntz, S., 2015. Prospects Revived For Life Around Low-Mass Stars [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1995. Adult Education Review (No. HEHS-95-65R). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Jiang, W., 2010. Advanced techniques for semantic concept detection in general videos (Doctoral dissertation). Columbia University, New York, NY.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Davey, M., Walsh, M.W., 2014. Detroit Outlines Map to Solvency, Stressing Repair. New York Times A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Kreeger, 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Kreeger, 2002; Peel and McMahon, 2006).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Peel and McMahon, 2006)
  • Three or more authors: (Menuz et al., 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleMicrobiological Research
AbbreviationMicrobiol. Res.
ISSN (print)0944-5013

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