How to format your references using the Microbiological Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Microbiological Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Cramer, K., 2000. Disextinction, Inc. Nature 405, 127.
A journal article with 2 authors
Qu, S.-W., Nie, Z.-P., 2013. Plasmonic nanopatch array for optical integrated circuit applications. Sci. Rep. 3, 3172.
A journal article with 3 authors
Naranjo, B., Gimzewski, J.K., Putterman, S., 2005. Observation of nuclear fusion driven by a pyroelectric crystal. Nature 434, 1115–1117.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Uemura, S., Dorywalska, M., Lee, T.-H., Kim, H.D., Puglisi, J.D., Chu, S., 2007. Peptide bond formation destabilizes Shine-Dalgarno interaction on the ribosome. Nature 446, 454–457.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Ramirez, J., 2007. Accounting for Derivatives. John Wiley & Sons Ltd, Oxford, UK.
An edited book
Xidonas, P., 2012. Multicriteria Portfolio Management, Springer Optimization and Its Applications. Springer, New York, NY.
A chapter in an edited book
Banerjee, A., Dutta, P., 2010. Fuzzy-Controlled Source-Initiated Multicasting (FSIM) in Ad Hoc Networks, in: Janowski, T., Mohanty, H. (Eds.), Distributed Computing and Internet Technology: 6th International Conference, ICDCIT 2010, Bhubaneswar, India, February 15-17, 2010. Proceedings, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 55–71.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Microbiological Research.

Blog post
Carpineti, A., 2015. Chicken Study Shows That Evolution Can Happen Quickly [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2014. Data Transparency: Oversight Needed to Address Underreporting and Inconsistencies on Federal Award Website (No. GAO-14-476). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Katavic, I., 2014. Corporate social responsibility and sustainable competitive advantage: A case study of the cement industry (Doctoral dissertation). Northcentral University, Scottsdale, AZ.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wagner, J., 2017. Bruce Arrived in Camp Expecting to Stay With Team. New York Times B11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Cramer, 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Cramer, 2000; Qu and Nie, 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Qu and Nie, 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (Uemura et al., 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleMicrobiological Research
AbbreviationMicrobiol. Res.
ISSN (print)0944-5013

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