How to format your references using the Microbial Pathogenesis citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Microbial Pathogenesis. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
S. Watts, Society needs more than wonder to respect science, Nature. 508 (2014) 151.
A journal article with 2 authors
D.B. Rowley, B.S. Currie, Palaeo-altimetry of the late Eocene to Miocene Lunpola basin, central Tibet, Nature. 439 (2006) 677–681.
A journal article with 3 authors
C.T. Moritz, S.I. Perlmutter, E.E. Fetz, Direct control of paralysed muscles by cortical neurons, Nature. 456 (2008) 639–642.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
S. Cao, H. Zhao, B. Kang, J. Zhang, W. Ren, Temperature induced spin switching in SmFeO3 single crystal, Sci. Rep. 4 (2014) 5960.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
B. Anjum, H. Perros, Bandwidth Allocation for Video Under Quality of Service Constraints, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2015.
An edited book
V. Guillard, Food Structure and Moisture Transfer: A Modeling Approach, Springer, New York, NY, 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
G. Prenat, K. Jabeur, G. Di Pendina, O. Boulle, G. Gaudin, Beyond STT-MRAM, Spin Orbit Torque RAM SOT-MRAM for High Speed and High Reliability Applications, in: W. Zhao, G. Prenat (Eds.), Spintronics-Based Computing, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2015: pp. 145–157.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Microbial Pathogenesis.

Blog post
E. Andrew, Tomorrow’s Technology Will Lead To Sweeping Changes In Society – It Must, For All Our Sakes, IFLScience. (2015). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, COMPETES Reauthorization Act: Federal Loan Guarantees for Innovative Technologies in Manufacturing, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2013.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
S.T. Morrow, Coboundary theorems for collections of random variables with moment conditions, Doctoral dissertation, Indiana University, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
M.M. Grynbaum, Inaugural All Its Own Brings Astonishment and Awe to Television, New York Times. (2017) A22.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleMicrobial Pathogenesis
AbbreviationMicrob. Pathog.
ISSN (print)0882-4010
Infectious Diseases

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