How to format your references using the Micro and Nano Systems Letters citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Micro and Nano Systems Letters. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Massagué J (2004) G1 cell-cycle control and cancer. Nature 432:298–306
A journal article with 2 authors
Ryan AJ, Christensen PR (2012) Coils and polygonal crust in the Athabasca Valles region, Mars, as evidence for a volcanic history. Science 336:449–452
A journal article with 3 authors
Naylor RL, Williams SL, Strong DR (2001) Ecology. Aquaculture--a gateway for exotic species. Science 294:1655–1656
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Da Costa Dias B, Jovanovic K, Gonsalves D, et al (2013) Anti-LRP/LR specific antibody IgG1-iS18 and knock-down of LRP/LR by shRNAs rescue cells from Aβ42 induced cytotoxicity. Sci Rep 3:2702

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Dinet J (2014) Information Retrieval in Digital Environments. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Rozenblat C, Melançon G (2013) Methods for Multilevel Analysis and Visualisation of Geographical Networks. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht
A chapter in an edited book
Dolk D (2010) Structured Modeling and Model Management. In: Sodhi MS, Tang CS (eds) A Long View of Research and Practice in Operations Research and Management Science: The Past and the Future. Springer US, Boston, MA, pp 63–88

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Micro and Nano Systems Letters.

Blog post
Andrew E (2015) Researchers Could Help Predict People At Risk Of Schizophrenia Using New Scanning Methods. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2001) Applying Agreed-Upon Procedures: Highway Trust Fund Excise Taxes. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Beck RE (2012) Examining the relationship between self-initiated expatriation and cross-cultural adjustment among expatriate spouses within nonprofit organizations: A quantitative causal-comparative study. Doctoral dissertation, Capella University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Pratt T (2012) ‘If You Fix Cities, You Kind of Fix the World.’ New York Times MM22

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleMicro and Nano Systems Letters
AbbreviationMicro Nano Syst. Lett.
ISSN (online)2213-9621

Other styles