How to format your references using the Micro and Nano Systems Letters citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Micro and Nano Systems Letters. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Rahman N (2014) Realizing the promise of cancer predisposition genes. Nature 505:302–308
A journal article with 2 authors
Junttila MR, de Sauvage FJ (2013) Influence of tumour micro-environment heterogeneity on therapeutic response. Nature 501:346–354
A journal article with 3 authors
Ma H, Sun H, Sun X (2014) Survival improvement by decade of patients aged 0-14 years with acute lymphoblastic leukemia: a SEER analysis. Sci Rep 4:4227
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Takáts Z, Wiseman JM, Gologan B, Cooks RG (2004) Mass spectrometry sampling under ambient conditions with desorption electrospray ionization. Science 306:471–473

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Diamond N (2013) Between Skins. John Wiley & Sons, Oxford
An edited book
Washio T, Sakurai A, Nakajima K, et al (2006) New Frontiers in Artificial Intelligence: Joint JSAI 2005 Workshop Post-Proceedings. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Felici M (2007) Trust Strategies and Policies in Complex Socio-technical Safety-Critical Domains: An Analysis of the Air Traffic Management Domain. In: Guelfi N, Buchs D (eds) Rapid Integration of Software Engineering Techniques: Third International Workshop, RISE 2006, Geneva, Switzerland, September 13-15, 2006. Revised Selected Papers. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 51–65

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Micro and Nano Systems Letters.

Blog post
Carpineti A (2016) The First Stars In The Universe Formed Later Than We Thought. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2011) Financial Literacy: A Federal Certification Process for Providers Would Pose Challenges. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Thompson P (2012) An exploratory study of work-related imagined interactions with real-life coworkers. Doctoral dissertation, Pepperdine University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey G (2011) Accountability Would Seem to Begin and End With Referees. New York Times D3

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleMicro and Nano Systems Letters
AbbreviationMicro Nano Syst. Lett.
ISSN (online)2213-9621

Other styles