How to format your references using the Micro and Nano Systems Letters citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Micro and Nano Systems Letters. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Zhang C-T (2013) A novel triangle mapping technique to study the h-index based citation distribution. Sci Rep 3:1023
A journal article with 2 authors
Baldwin MP, Dunkerton TJ (2001) Stratospheric harbingers of anomalous weather regimes. Science 294:581–584
A journal article with 3 authors
Chakraborty S, Yanchulova P, Thiemens MH (2013) Mass-independent oxygen isotopic partitioning during gas-phase SiO2 formation. Science 342:463–466
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Li Y, Ji S, Gao Y, et al (2013) Core-shell VO2@TiO2 nanorods that combine thermochromic and photocatalytic properties for application as energy-saving smart coatings. Sci Rep 3:1370

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Shimizu H (2017) Shimizu’s Dermatology. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK
An edited book
Schatten H, Pawley JB (2008) Biological Low-Voltage Scanning Electron Microscopy. Springer, New York, NY
A chapter in an edited book
Kumar M, Chauhan R (2010) Present Status, Challenges and Management of the Japanese Coastal Zone Environment. In: Ramanathan AL, Bhattacharya P, Dittmar T, et al (eds) Management and Sustainable Development of Coastal Zone Environments. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, pp 73–84

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Micro and Nano Systems Letters.

Blog post
Andrew E (2014) In The Ocean, The Most Harmful Plastic Is Too Small To See. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2001) Space Shuttle Safety: Update on NASA’s Progress in Revitalizing the Shuttle Workforce and Making Safety Upgrades. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Arendse EM (2014) A textual Caribbean: Voices of the multitude in Junot Díaz’s The Brief Wondrous Life of Oscar Wao. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Dorman JL (2016) Andrew F. Smith on New York City’s Food Heritage. New York Times TR2

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleMicro and Nano Systems Letters
AbbreviationMicro Nano Syst. Lett.
ISSN (online)2213-9621

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