How to format your references using the MethodsX citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for MethodsX. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
R.A. Kerr, CLIMATOLOGY: Does a Climate Clock Get a Noisy Boost?, Science. 290 (2000) 697–698.
A journal article with 2 authors
M.J. Brusco, H.-F. Köhn, Comment on “Clustering by passing messages between data points,” Science. 319 (2008) 726; author reply 726.
A journal article with 3 authors
E. Blaser, Z.W. Pylyshyn, A.O. Holcombe, Tracking an object through feature space, Nature. 408 (2000) 196–199.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
E. Schaffer, T. Thurn-Albrecht, T.P. Russell, U. Steiner, Electrically induced structure formation and pattern transfer, Nature. 403 (2000) 874–877.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
W. Schmidt, Optische Spektroskopie, Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH, D-69451 Weinheim, Germany, 2000.
An edited book
H.L. Bodlaender, R. Downey, F.V. Fomin, D. Marx, eds., The Multivariate Algorithmic Revolution and Beyond: Essays Dedicated to Michael R. Fellows on the Occasion of His 60th Birthday, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
N. Westerhof, N. Stergiopulos, M.I.M. Noble, Arterial Stenosis, in: N. Stergiopulos, M.I.M. Noble (Eds.), Snapshots of Hemodynamics: An Aid for Clinical Research and Graduate Education, Springer US, Boston, MA, 2010: pp. 25–30.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for MethodsX.

Blog post
E. Andrew, Mysterious X-Rays Could Mark Enormous Star Graveyard Surrounding Our Galaxy’s Supermassive Black Hole, IFLScience. (2015). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, An Approach to the Audit of Research and Development Activities, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1969.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
A.C. McCarthy, Tangle towns tie-breaker: A multidimensional knapsack study, Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
J. Poniewozik, Reviving a Snow Globe Town and Its Comfortable Nostalgia, New York Times. (2016) C1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleMethodsX
ISSN (print)2215-0161

Other styles