How to format your references using the COPD Research and Practice citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for COPD Research and Practice. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Macilwain C. World view: Calling science to account. Nature. 2010;463:875.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Zatorre RJ, Krumhansl CL. Neuroscience. Mental models and musical minds. Science. 2002;298:2138–9.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Grafton RQ, Kompas T, Hilborn RW. Economics of overexploitation revisited. Science. 2007;318:1601.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Cao G, Feng H, Guo F, Wu K, Li X, Liang G, et al. Quantitative analysis of fitness costs associated with the development of resistance to the Bt toxin Cry1Ac in Helicoverpa armigera. Sci Rep. 2014;4:5629.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Cofnas A. Trading Binary Options. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2011.
An edited book
1. Haber A, Shepherd N, editors. After Ethics: Ancestral Voices and Post-Disciplinary Worlds in Archaeology. New York, NY: Springer; 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Liao I-C, Deng Y-S, You H-C. The Emotion and Personality User Perception in Multi-screen Interaction. In: Marcus A, editor. Design, User Experience, and Usability: Novel User Experiences: 5th International Conference, DUXU 2016, Held as Part of HCI International 2016, Toronto, Canada, July 17–22, 2016, Proceedings, Part II. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016. p. 34–45.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for COPD Research and Practice.

Blog post
1. Andrews R. Men Cite Themselves Way More Than Women In Studies. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016.

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Army Battlefield Automation: Oversight Needed to Assure Integrated System. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1990 Jul. Report No.: IMTEC-90-78.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Loretz N. Human trafficking: Identification, education, and awareness: A grant proposal [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Wagner J. Mets Fall Again, and Weigh Options. New York Times. 2017 Jul 31;D2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleCOPD Research and Practice
ISSN (online)2054-9040
Scope

Other styles