How to format your references using the COPD Research and Practice citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for COPD Research and Practice. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Corliss J. Exercise: Powering up. Nature. 2012;485:S62-3.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Jamison DT, Sandbu ME. Global health. WHO ranking of health system performance. Science. 2001;293:1595–6.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Wang Y, Zhang Y, Ha Y. Crystal structure of a rhomboid family intramembrane protease. Nature. 2006;444:179–80.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Frydman HM, Li JM, Robson DN, Wieschaus E. Somatic stem cell niche tropism in Wolbachia. Nature. 2006;441:509–12.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Baudin P. Wireless Transceiver Architecture. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2014.
An edited book
1. Canepari M, Zecevic D, editors. Membrane Potential Imaging in the Nervous System: Methods and Applications. New York, NY: Springer; 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Navratil G, Grum E. What makes Location-Based Services fail? In: Gartner G, Cartwright W, Peterson MP, editors. Location Based Services and TeleCartography. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2007. p. 59–72.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for COPD Research and Practice.

Blog post
1. Fang J. Teenager Invents Energy-Generating Shoe Insoles [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2014 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from: https://www.iflscience.com/technology/teenager-invents-energy-generating-shoe-insoles/

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Continued Use of Costly, Outmoded Computers in Federal Agencies Can Be Avoided. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1980 Dec. Report No.: AFMD-81-9.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Bleicher J. Scenario methods as a means for enhancing organizational learning: A Delphi study [Doctoral dissertation]. [Phoenix, AZ]: University of Phoenix; 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Kelly M. THE 1992 CAMPAIGN: The Democrats; Clinton’s Staff Sees Campaign As a Real War. New York Times. 1992 Aug 11;A16.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleCOPD Research and Practice
ISSN (online)2054-9040
Scope

Other styles