How to format your references using the Methods in Oceanography citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Methods in Oceanography. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Normile, D., 2000. AGRICULTURE: Variety Spices Up Chinese Rice Yields. Science 289, 1122b–3b.
A journal article with 2 authors
Hempstead, B.L., Salzer, J.L., 2002. Neurobiology. A glial spin on neurotrophins. Science 298, 1184–1186.
A journal article with 3 authors
van den Heuvel, M.G.L., de Graaff, M.P., Dekker, C., 2006. Molecular sorting by electrical steering of microtubules in kinesin-coated channels. Science 312, 910–914.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Fathman, C.G., Soares, L., Chan, S.M., Utz, P.J., 2005. An array of possibilities for the study of autoimmunity. Nature 435, 605–611.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Davey, K.J., 2014. Building Winning Algorithmic Trading Systems. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Leder, S.B., 2014. The Yale Swallow Protocol: An Evidence-Based Approach to Decision Making. Springer International Publishing, Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
Hurlburt, N., Cheung, M., Schrijver, C., Chang, L., Freeland, S., Green, S., Heck, C., Jaffey, A., Kobashi, A., Schiff, D., Serafin, J., Seguin, R., Slater, G., Somani, A., Timmons, R., 2012. Heliophysics Event Knowledgebase for the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) and Beyond, in: Chamberlin, P., Pesnell, W.D., Thompson, B. (Eds.), The Solar Dynamics Observatory. Springer US, New York, NY, pp. 67–78.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Methods in Oceanography.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2015. Fake Orca Meant To Scare Sea Lions Fails Miserably [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1993. Demand Distribution Rolodex Card (No. 154061). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Hernandez, L., 2009. A culturally sensitive mentorship program for foster youth: A grant proposal (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse, L., 2007. Justices, 5-4, Accept No Excuses From Inmate for Mistaken Late Filing of an Appeal. New York Times A18.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Normile, 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Hempstead and Salzer, 2002; Normile, 2000).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Hempstead and Salzer, 2002)
  • Three or more authors: (Fathman et al., 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleMethods in Oceanography
AbbreviationMeth. Oceanogr.
ISSN (print)2211-1220
ScopeAquatic Science
Ocean Engineering

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