How to format your references using the Methods in Oceanography citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Methods in Oceanography. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Nordlander, P., 2014. Applied physics. Molecular tuning of quantum plasmon resonances. Science 343, 1444–1445.
A journal article with 2 authors
Graham, S., Hegde, D., 2015. Intellectual Property. Disclosing patents’ secrets. Science 347, 236–237.
A journal article with 3 authors
Callou, C., Samzun, A., Zivie, A., 2004. Archaeology: a lion found in the Egyptian tomb of Maïa. Nature 427, 211–212.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Bannister, A.J., Zegerman, P., Partridge, J.F., Miska, E.A., Thomas, J.O., Allshire, R.C., Kouzarides, T., 2001. Selective recognition of methylated lysine 9 on histone H3 by the HP1 chromo domain. Nature 410, 120–124.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Blanchet, G., Dupouy, B., 2012. Computer Architecture. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ USA.
An edited book
Zatt, B., 2013. 3D Video Coding for Embedded Devices: Energy Efficient Algorithms and Architectures. Springer, New York, NY.
A chapter in an edited book
Leavitt, S.D., St. Clair, L.L., 2015. Bio-monitoring in Western North America: What Can Lichens Tell Us About Ecological Disturbances?, in: Upreti, D.K., Divakar, P.K., Shukla, V., Bajpai, R. (Eds.), Recent Advances in Lichenology: Modern Methods and Approaches in Biomonitoring and Bioprospection, Volume 1. Springer India, New Delhi, pp. 119–138.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Methods in Oceanography.

Blog post
Fang, J., 2014. Electronic Skin Can Store Data and Deliver Drugs [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1988. Space Exploration: Cost, Schedule, and Performance of NASA’s Mars Observer Mission (No. NSIAD-88-137FS). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ramberg, K.S., 2010. L’envers et l’endroit: The other side of the cloth (Doctoral dissertation). Pacifica Graduate Institute, Carpinteria, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Sisario, B., 2017. Another Failed Festival Puts Industry on Edge. New York Times B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Nordlander, 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Graham and Hegde, 2015; Nordlander, 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Graham and Hegde, 2015)
  • Three or more authors: (Bannister et al., 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleMethods in Oceanography
AbbreviationMeth. Oceanogr.
ISSN (print)2211-1220
ScopeAquatic Science
Ocean Engineering

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