How to format your references using the Methods in Oceanography citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Methods in Oceanography. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Basu, P., 2010. Forgotten lessons. Nature 466, S14-5.
A journal article with 2 authors
Aide, T.M., Grau, H.R., 2004. Ecology. Globalization, migration, and Latin American ecosystems. Science 305, 1915–1916.
A journal article with 3 authors
Brooks, C.L., 3rd, Onuchic, J.N., Wales, D.J., 2001. Statistical thermodynamics. Taking a walk on a landscape. Science 293, 612–613.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Clarkson, J.R., Baquero, E., Shubert, V.A., Myshakin, E.M., Jordan, K.D., Zwier, T.S., 2005. Laser-initiated shuttling of a water molecule between H-bonding sites. Science 307, 1443–1446.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Lin, X.S., 2006. Introductory Stochastic Analysis for Finance and Insurance: Lin/Introductory, Wiley Series in Probability and Statistics. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Ivancevic, T.T., 2011. Paradigm Shift for Future Tennis: The Art of Tennis Physiology, Biomechanics and Psychology, Cognitive Systems Monographs. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Matthews, G., Reinerman-Jones, L., Wohleber, R., Lin, J., Mercado, J., Abich, J., 2015. Workload Is Multidimensional, Not Unitary: What Now?, in: Schmorrow, D.D., Fidopiastis, C.M. (Eds.), Foundations of Augmented Cognition: 9th International Conference, AC 2015, Held as Part of HCI International 2015, Los Angeles, CA, USA, August 2-7, 2015, Proceedings, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp. 44–55.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Methods in Oceanography.

Blog post
O`Callaghan, J., 2015. Did Shakespeare Smoke Weed? [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2012. Slot-Controlled Airports: FAA’s Rules Could Be Improved to Enhance Competition and Use of Available Capacity (No. GAO-12-902). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Bravo, J., 2009. Project Share: Implementing an aftercare program for recovering adolescents: A grant proposal (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey, G., 2009. Old Pro Matsui Comes Through At the New Park. New York Times B12.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Basu, 2010).
This sentence cites two references (Aide and Grau, 2004; Basu, 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Aide and Grau, 2004)
  • Three or more authors: (Clarkson et al., 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleMethods in Oceanography
AbbreviationMeth. Oceanogr.
ISSN (print)2211-1220
ScopeAquatic Science
Ocean Engineering

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