How to format your references using the Demographic Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Demographic Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Wadhwa, M. (2001). Redox state of Mars’ upper mantle and crust from Eu anomalies in shergottite pyroxenes. Science (New York, N.Y.) 291(5508):1527–1530.
A journal article with 2 authors
Huber, C. and Wächtershäuser, G. (2006). alpha-Hydroxy and alpha-amino acids under possible Hadean, volcanic origin-of-life conditions. Science (New York, N.Y.) 314(5799):630–632.
A journal article with 3 authors
Lappe, M., Awater, H., and Krekelberg, B. (2000). Postsaccadic visual references generate presaccadic compression of space. Nature 403(6772):892–895.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Choi, H.-J., Choi, J.-S., Park, B.-J., Eom, J.-H., Heo, S.-Y., Jung, M.-W., An, K.-S., and Yoon, S.-G. (2014). Enhanced transparency, mechanical durability, and antibacterial activity of zinc nanoparticles on glass substrate. Scientific reports 4:6271.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Lißner, K. and Rug, W. (2016). Der Eurocode 5 Für Deutschland Eurocode 5: Bemessung Und Konstruktion von Holzbauten. Berlin, Germany: Wilhelm Ernst & Sohn Verlag für Architektur und technische Wissenschaften GmbH & Co. KG.
An edited book
Leal Filho, W. and Voudouris, V. (eds.) (2013). Global Energy Policy and Security. London: Springer. Lecture Notes in Energy.
A chapter in an edited book
Nyström, I., Olsson, P., Nysjö, J., Nysjö, F., Malmberg, F., Seipel, S., Hirsch, J.-M., and Carlbom, I.B. (2016). Virtual Cranio-Maxillofacial Surgery Planning with Stereo Graphics and Haptics. In: Ritacco, L. E., Milano, F. E. and Chao, E. (eds.). Computer-Assisted Musculoskeletal Surgery: Thinking and Executing in 3D. Cham: Springer International Publishing: 29–42.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Demographic Research.

Blog post
O`Callaghan, J. (2015). Comet 67P Was Made By Two Bodies Merging Together, New Evidence Suggests [electronic resource]. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1987). Aviation Security: FAA Needs Preboard Passenger Screening Performance Standards. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Hausmann, R.C. (2015). Organizing Ecosystems for Social Innovation: The Relationality of Contexts and Mechanisms in a Social Entrepreneurship Network. [Doctoral dissertation]. Washington, DC: George Washington University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey, G. (2011). A Thick Résumé for a Tough Job. New York Times:D6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Wadhwa 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Huber and Wächtershäuser 2006; Wadhwa 2001).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Huber and Wächtershäuser 2006)
  • Three authors: (Lappe, Awater, and Krekelberg 2000)
  • 4 or more authors: (Choi et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleDemographic Research
AbbreviationDemogr. Res.
ISSN (print)1435-9871
ISSN (online)2363-7064

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