How to format your references using the Demographic Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Demographic Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kondrashov, A. (2012). James Crow (1916-2012). Nature 481(7382):444.
A journal article with 2 authors
Stern, N. and Taylor, C. (2007). Economics. Climate change: risk, ethics, and the Stern Review. Science (New York, N.Y.) 317(5835):203–204.
A journal article with 3 authors
Tilmann, F., Ni, J., and INDEPTH III Seismic Team (2003). Seismic imaging of the downwelling Indian lithosphere beneath central Tibet. Science (New York, N.Y.) 300(5624):1424–1427.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Sreekanth, K.V., Krishna, K.H., De Luca, A., and Strangi, G. (2014). Large spontaneous emission rate enhancement in grating coupled hyperbolic metamaterials. Scientific reports 4:6340.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Jiang, J. and Zhang, C. (2015). Fundamentals and Applications of Lithium-Ion Batteries in Electric Drive Vehicles. Singapore: John Wiley & Sons Singapore Pte. Ltd.
An edited book
Stoffel, M., Bollschweiler, M., Butler, D.R., and Luckman, B.H. (eds.) (2010). Tree Rings and Natural Hazards: A State-of-Art. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands. Advances in Global Change Research.
A chapter in an edited book
Wang, H., Hao, F., Zhu, C., Rodrigues, J.J.P.C., and Yang, L.T. (2012). An Android Multimedia Framework Based on Gstreamer. In: Rodrigues, J. J. P. C., Zhou, L., Chen, M. and Kailas, A. (eds.). Green Communications and Networking: First International Conference, GreeNets 2011, Colmar, France, October 5-7, 2011, Revised Selected Papers. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer: 51–62.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Demographic Research.

Blog post
Andrew, D. (2016). The Antibodies That Were Invented To Help Immunologists Find GOD [electronic resource]. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2016). Federal Research Grants: Opportunities Remain for Agencies to Streamline Administrative Requirements. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Valenzuela, B.D. (2013). Thirty-Year-Old Mulberry Field. [Doctoral dissertation]. Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Saslow, L. (2007). Brookhaven Lab Avoids Cuts in Budget. New York Times:LI2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Kondrashov 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Kondrashov 2012; Stern and Taylor 2007).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Stern and Taylor 2007)
  • Three authors: (Tilmann, Ni, and INDEPTH III Seismic Team 2003)
  • 4 or more authors: (Sreekanth et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleDemographic Research
AbbreviationDemogr. Res.
ISSN (print)1435-9871
ISSN (online)2363-7064

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