How to format your references using the Demographic Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Demographic Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Lloyd, S. (2001). Quantum computing. Computation from geometry. Science (New York, N.Y.) 292(5522):1669.
A journal article with 2 authors
McFarland, E.W. and Tang, J. (2003). A photovoltaic device structure based on internal electron emission. Nature 421(6923):616–618.
A journal article with 3 authors
Akiyama, K., Matsuzaki, K.-I., and Hayashi, H. (2005). Plant sesquiterpenes induce hyphal branching in arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Nature 435(7043):824–827.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Kim, Y., Strelcov, E., Hwang, I.R., Choi, T., Park, B.H., Jesse, S., and Kalinin, S.V. (2013). Correlative multimodal probing of ionically-mediated electromechanical phenomena in simple oxides. Scientific reports 3:2924.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Storhas, W. (2013). Bioverfahrensentwicklung. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
An edited book
Bjøntegaard, Ø. (2015). RILEM Technical Committee 195-DTD Recommendation for Test Methods for AD and TD of Early Age Concrete: Round Robin Documentation Report: Program, Test Results and Statistical Evaluation. Martius-Hammer, T. A., Krauss, M. and Budelmann, H. (eds.). Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands. RILEM State-of-the-Art Reports.
A chapter in an edited book
Schneider, J.K. (2008). Ultrasonic Fingerprint Sensors. In: Ratha, N. K. and Govindaraju, V. (eds.). Advances in Biometrics: Sensors, Algorithms and Systems. London: Springer: 63–74.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Demographic Research.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015). Explainer: What Is A Superconductor? [electronic resource]. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1982). Evaluation of NASA Compliance With Congressional Reprogramming Requirements. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Schutt, R. (2010). Topics in model-based population inference. [Doctoral dissertation]. New York, NY: Columbia University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hubbard, B. (2017). Saudi Says Arrests Target Dissidents Aided Abroad. New York Times:A7.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Lloyd 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Lloyd 2001; McFarland and Tang 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (McFarland and Tang 2003)
  • Three authors: (Akiyama, Matsuzaki, and Hayashi 2005)
  • 4 or more authors: (Kim et al. 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleDemographic Research
AbbreviationDemogr. Res.
ISSN (print)1435-9871
ISSN (online)2363-7064

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