How to format your references using the Demographic Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Demographic Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Green, H.W., 2nd (2001). Plate tectonics. A graveyard for buoyant slabs? Science (New York, N.Y.) 292(5526):2445–2446.
A journal article with 2 authors
Wandzioch, E. and Zaret, K.S. (2009). Dynamic signaling network for the specification of embryonic pancreas and liver progenitors. Science (New York, N.Y.) 324(5935):1707–1710.
A journal article with 3 authors
Palop, J.J., Chin, J., and Mucke, L. (2006). A network dysfunction perspective on neurodegenerative diseases. Nature 443(7113):768–773.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Richardson, J.D., Kasper, J.C., Wang, C., Belcher, J.W., and Lazarus, A.J. (2008). Cool heliosheath plasma and deceleration of the upstream solar wind at the termination shock. Nature 454(7200):63–66.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Rieth, M. and Krämer, N. (2016). Hygiene in Der Arzneimittelproduktion. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
An edited book
Lu, Z. (2014). InSAR Imaging of Aleutian Volcanoes: Monitoring a Volcanic Arc from Space. Dzurisin, D. (ed.). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer. Springer Praxis Books.
A chapter in an edited book
Backhaus, G.F. (2009). Regulatory Aspects in Chemical Control of Fungal Diseases: Impact on Efficient Plant Production. In: Gisi, U., Chet, I. and Gullino, M. L. (eds.). Recent Developments in Management of Plant Diseases. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands: 47–55.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Demographic Research.

Blog post
Davis, J. (2017). Bacteria May Be Altering Your Brain To Suppress Your Appetite When You’re Sick [electronic resource]. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2000). Telecommunications: The Effect of Competition From Satellite Providers on Cable Rates. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Horwitz, M.H. (2017). Morphodynamics and Sediment Transport Pathways of the John’s Pass-Blind Pass Dual Inlet System: Pinellas County, Florida. [Doctoral dissertation]. Tampa, FL: University of South Florida.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Gustines, G.G. (2014). Archie Isn’t Dead. He’s Free. (For One Day.). New York Times:C34.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Green 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Green 2001; Wandzioch and Zaret 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Wandzioch and Zaret 2009)
  • Three authors: (Palop, Chin, and Mucke 2006)
  • 4 or more authors: (Richardson et al. 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleDemographic Research
AbbreviationDemogr. Res.
ISSN (print)1435-9871
ISSN (online)2363-7064

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