How to format your references using the Demographic Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Demographic Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Mazin, I.I. (2015). Superconductivity: Extraordinarily conventional. Nature 525(7567):40–41.
A journal article with 2 authors
Emery, N.J. and Clayton, N.S. (2004). The mentality of crows: convergent evolution of intelligence in corvids and apes. Science (New York, N.Y.) 306(5703):1903–1907.
A journal article with 3 authors
Hoffmann, K.F., Brindley, P.J., and Berriman, M. (2014). Medicine. Halting harmful helminths. Science (New York, N.Y.) 346(6206):168–169.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Li, M., Ding, J., Gu, H., Zhang, Y., Pan, S., Xu, N., Chen, H., and Li, H. (2013). Facilitated diffusion of acetonitrile revealed by quantitative breath analysis using extractive electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. Scientific reports 3:1205.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Tasman, A., Kay, J., and Ursano, R.J. (2013). The Psychiatric Interview. Oxford: John Wiley & Sons.
An edited book
Bakris, G.L. (ed.) (2012). The Kidney in Heart Failure. Boston, MA: Springer US.
A chapter in an edited book
Messie, D. and Oh, J.C. (2006). SWARMs of Self-Organizing Polymorphic Agents. In: Nedjah, N. and Mourelle, L. de M. (eds.). Swarm Intelligent Systems. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer: 75–90.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Demographic Research.

Blog post
Luntz, S. (2014). Scientists Translate Monkey Sounds To English [electronic resource]. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1977). Maritime Administration’s Satellite Communications Program: Is It Still Needed? Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Moreno, S. (2009). Mother-child relationships: Females behind bars and their children. [Doctoral dissertation]. Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Dominus, I. by S. (2013). ‘I Really Put Myself Out There’. New York Times:MM14.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Mazin 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Emery and Clayton 2004; Mazin 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Emery and Clayton 2004)
  • Three authors: (Hoffmann, Brindley, and Berriman 2014)
  • 4 or more authors: (Li et al. 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleDemographic Research
AbbreviationDemogr. Res.
ISSN (print)1435-9871
ISSN (online)2363-7064

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