How to format your references using the Demographic Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Demographic Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Anthes, E. (2014). Treatment: Marginal gains. Nature 508(7496):S54-6.
A journal article with 2 authors
Trujillo, C.A. and Sheppard, S.S. (2014). A Sedna-like body with a perihelion of 80 astronomical units. Nature 507(7493):471–474.
A journal article with 3 authors
Poulton, S.W., Fralick, P.W., and Canfield, D.E. (2004). The transition to a sulphidic ocean approximately 1.84 billion years ago. Nature 431(7005):173–177.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Nakada, S., Tai, I., Panier, S., Al-Hakim, A., Iemura, S.-I., Juang, Y.-C., O’Donnell, L., Kumakubo, A., Munro, M., Sicheri, F., Gingras, A.-C., Natsume, T., Suda, T., and Durocher, D. (2010). Non-canonical inhibition of DNA damage-dependent ubiquitination by OTUB1. Nature 466(7309):941–946.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Binnie, C. (2016). Linux Server Security. Indianapolis, IN, USA: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Scarabino, T., Salvolini, U., and Randy Jinkins, J. (eds.) (2006). Emergency Neuroradiology. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Vilanova, R., Alfaro, V.M., and Arrieta, O. (2012). Robustness in PID Control. In: Vilanova, R. and Visioli, A. (eds.). PID Control in the Third Millennium: Lessons Learned and New Approaches. London: Springer: 113–145.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Demographic Research.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015). Researchers Create First Single-Molecule Diode [electronic resource]. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1993). IRS Information Systems: Weaknesses Increase Risk of Fraud and Impair Reliability of Management Information. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
O’Connell, A.M. (2008). Customer retention and leadership in the nonprofit healthcare organization. [Doctoral dissertation]. Phoenix, AZ: University of Phoenix.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Santora, M. and Weiser, B. (2016). Charges That Bronx Man Tried to Join ISIS Show Shift in Terror Cases. New York Times:A17.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Anthes 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Anthes 2014; Trujillo and Sheppard 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Trujillo and Sheppard 2014)
  • Three authors: (Poulton, Fralick, and Canfield 2004)
  • 4 or more authors: (Nakada et al. 2010)

About the journal

Full journal titleDemographic Research
AbbreviationDemogr. Res.
ISSN (print)1435-9871
ISSN (online)2363-7064

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