How to format your references using the Complex Adaptive Systems Modeling citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Complex Adaptive Systems Modeling. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Gal-Yam A (2012) Luminous supernovae. Science 337:927–932
A journal article with 2 authors
Margolis D, Bushman F (2014) HIV/AIDS. Persistence by proliferation? Science 345:143–144
A journal article with 3 authors
Agarwala S, Sanders TA, Ragsdale CW (2001) Sonic hedgehog control of size and shape in midbrain pattern formation. Science 291:2147–2150
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Huismans Y, Rouzée A, Gijsbertsen A, et al (2011) Time-resolved holography with photoelectrons. Science 331:61–64

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Fabozzi FJ, Kothari V (2008) Introduction to Securitization. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Lookman T, Alexander FJ, Rajan K (eds) (2016) Information Science for Materials Discovery and Design, 1st ed. 2016. Springer International Publishing, Cham
A chapter in an edited book
Chao N-H, Liao IC (2007) Sustainable Approaches for Aquaculture Development: Looking Ahead Through Lessons in the Past. In: Bert TM (ed) Ecological and Genetic Implications of Aquaculture Activities. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, pp 73–82

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Complex Adaptive Systems Modeling.

Blog post
Taub B (2016) Russian Fisherman Captures Insane-Looking Deep-Sea Creatures, But What The Hell Are They? In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2016) Freight Rail Pricing: Contracts Provide Shippers and Railroads Flexibility, but High Rates Concern Some Shippers. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Tang Y (2009) Structure tailored properties and functionalities of zero-dimensional nanostructures. Doctoral dissertation, University of Maryland, College Park

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Crow K (2001) The End of Innocence. New York Times 141

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Gal-Yam 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Gal-Yam 2012; Margolis and Bushman 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Margolis and Bushman 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Huismans et al. 2011)

About the journal

Full journal titleComplex Adaptive Systems Modeling
AbbreviationComplex Adapt. Syst. Model.
ISSN (online)2194-3206

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