How to format your references using the Complex Adaptive Systems Modeling citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Complex Adaptive Systems Modeling. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Levasseur-Regourd A-C (2004) Cometary dust unveiled. Science 304:1762–1763
A journal article with 2 authors
Relling MV, Evans WE (2015) Pharmacogenomics in the clinic. Nature 526:343–350
A journal article with 3 authors
Campbell JE, Lobell DB, Field CB (2009) Greater transportation energy and GHG offsets from bioelectricity than ethanol. Science 324:1055–1057
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Nishikawa H, Iga M, Yamaguchi J, et al (2013) Molecular basis of wing coloration in a Batesian mimic butterfly, Papilio polytes. Sci Rep 3:3184

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Stacey WM (2012) Fusion Plasma Physics. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, Germany
An edited book
Wohlers TE (2016) Setting Sail into the Age of Digital Local Government: Trends and Best Practices, 1st ed. 2016. Springer US, Boston, MA
A chapter in an edited book
Dzemyda G, Kurasova O, Žilinskas J (2013) Combining Multidimensional Scaling with Artificial Neural Networks. In: Kurasova O, Žilinskas J (eds) Multidimensional Data Visualization: Methods and Applications. Springer, New York, NY, pp 113–177

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Complex Adaptive Systems Modeling.

Blog post
Fang J (2015) Britain’s Oldest Surviving Human Brain Was Preserved In Mud For 2,600 Years. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2014) Secure Flight: TSA Could Take Additional Steps to Strengthen Privacy Oversight Mechanisms. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Love KS (2010) Factors infleuncing job satisfaction in nurses. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Cyran R, Hay G (2010) New Ventures Win Old Financiers. New York Times B2

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Levasseur-Regourd 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Levasseur-Regourd 2004; Relling and Evans 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Relling and Evans 2015)
  • Three or more authors: (Nishikawa et al. 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleComplex Adaptive Systems Modeling
AbbreviationComplex Adapt. Syst. Model.
ISSN (online)2194-3206

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