How to format your references using the Complex Adaptive Systems Modeling citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Complex Adaptive Systems Modeling. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Underwood E (2015) Neuroscience. A faster, brighter picture of brain cells in action. Science 350:895
A journal article with 2 authors
Petro EJ, Raben DM (2013) Bacterial expression strategies for several Sus scrofa diacylglycerol kinase alpha constructs: solubility challenges. Sci Rep 3:1609
A journal article with 3 authors
Jalili R, Razal JM, Wallace GG (2013) Wet-spinning of PEDOT:PSS/functionalized-SWNTs composite: a facile route toward production of strong and highly conducting multifunctional fibers. Sci Rep 3:3438
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Sengar SK, Mehta BR, Kumar R, Singh V (2013) In-flight gas phase growth of metal/multi layer graphene core shell nanoparticles with controllable sizes. Sci Rep 3:2814

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Chaudhry A, Coetsee D, Bakker E, et al (2014) 2015 Interpretation and Application of International Financial Reporting Standards. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Dubey AK, Biswas A (eds) (2016) India and Africa’s Partnership: A Vision for a New Future, 1st ed. 2016. Springer India, New Delhi
A chapter in an edited book
Falco I, Cioppa A, Maisto D, Tarantino E (2007) Differential Evolution for the Registration of Remotely Sensed Images. In: Saad A, Dahal K, Sarfraz M, Roy R (eds) Soft Computing in Industrial Applications: Recent Trends. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 40–49

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Complex Adaptive Systems Modeling.

Blog post
Luntz S (2015) Biotech Firm 3D Prints Fake Rhino Horn That’s Genetically Identical To The Real Thing. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2015) Space Acquisitions: Some Programs Have Overcome Past Problems, but Challenges and Uncertainty Remain for the Future. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Carrier TH (2017) Using Grunig’s Situational Theory for Analysis of Frames in Human Trafficking Awareness Organizations’ YouTube Videos. Doctoral dissertation, University of Louisiana

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
de la MERCED MJ, Sorkin AR (2017) Sale of D.C. United Is Said to Be Considered. New York Times D4

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Underwood 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Petro and Raben 2013; Underwood 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Petro and Raben 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (Sengar et al. 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleComplex Adaptive Systems Modeling
AbbreviationComplex Adapt. Syst. Model.
ISSN (online)2194-3206

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