How to format your references using the Complex Adaptive Systems Modeling citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Complex Adaptive Systems Modeling. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Reif JH (2011) Biochemistry. Scaling up DNA computation. Science 332:1156–1157
A journal article with 2 authors
Kaproth BM, Marone C (2013) Slow earthquakes, preseismic velocity changes, and the origin of slow frictional stick-slip. Science 341:1229–1232
A journal article with 3 authors
Seto KC, Kaufmann RK, Woodcock CE (2000) Landsat reveals China’s farmland reserves, but they’re vanishing fast. Nature 406:121
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Hutvágner G, McLachlan J, Pasquinelli AE, et al (2001) A cellular function for the RNA-interference enzyme Dicer in the maturation of the let-7 small temporal RNA. Science 293:834–838

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kühn V (2006) Wireless Communications over MIMO Channels. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK
An edited book
McEwan T, Gulliksen J, Benyon D (eds) (2006) People and Computers XIX — The Bigger Picture: Proceedings of HCI 2005. Springer, London
A chapter in an edited book
Barkeshli K, Khorasani S (2015) Radar. In: Khorasani S (ed) Advanced Electromagnetics and Scattering Theory. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp 213–229

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Complex Adaptive Systems Modeling.

Blog post
Andrew E (2015) How Space Alters Whiskey. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1985) Performance Appraisal Information From Selected Federal Agencies. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Luscinski A (2017) Best Practices in Adult Online Learning. Doctoral dissertation, Pepperdine University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Koblin J (2016) Wilmore Signs Deal With ABC Studios. New York Times C3

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Reif 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Reif 2011; Kaproth and Marone 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Kaproth and Marone 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (Hutvágner et al. 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleComplex Adaptive Systems Modeling
AbbreviationComplex Adapt. Syst. Model.
ISSN (online)2194-3206

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