How to format your references using the Complex Adaptive Systems Modeling citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Complex Adaptive Systems Modeling. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Olivier NB (2014) Structural biology: Ribosome revelations. Nature 513:491–492
A journal article with 2 authors
Shin D, Cho K-H (2013) Recurrent connections form a phase-locking neuronal tuner for frequency-dependent selective communication. Sci Rep 3:2519
A journal article with 3 authors
Bánsági T Jr, Vanag VK, Epstein IR (2011) Tomography of reaction-diffusion microemulsions reveals three-dimensional Turing patterns. Science 331:1309–1312
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Zhu J, Shendure J, Mitra RD, Church GM (2003) Single molecule profiling of alternative pre-mRNA splicing. Science 301:836–838

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Chapman BR, Bolen EG (2015) Ecology of North America. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK
An edited book
Dickerson V (ed) (2016) Poststructural and Narrative Thinking in Family Therapy. Springer International Publishing, Cham
A chapter in an edited book
Gülay Gürbüz H, Pala Er N, Tekinerdogan B (2014) Architecture Framework for Software Safety. In: Amyot D, Fonseca i Casas P, Mussbacher G (eds) System Analysis and Modeling: Models and Reusability: 8th International Conference, SAM 2014, Valencia, Spain, September 29-30, 2014. Proceedings. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp 64–79

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Complex Adaptive Systems Modeling.

Blog post
Carpineti A (2017) Quantum Refrigerator Breakthrough Might Be Crucial For Future Of Computing. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1988) ADP Planning: Challenges at the U.S. Transportation Command. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Nguyen A (2017) Poetry as a Museum. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Neal L (2010) Quotation of the Day. New York Times A2

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Olivier 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Shin and Cho 2013; Olivier 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Shin and Cho 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (Zhu et al. 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleComplex Adaptive Systems Modeling
AbbreviationComplex Adapt. Syst. Model.
ISSN (online)2194-3206

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