How to format your references using the Methods in Ecology and Evolution citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Methods in Ecology and Evolution. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Smaglik, P. (2002). Lessons in career planning. Nature, 418(6898), 3.
A journal article with 2 authors
Kramer, E. M., & Donohue, K. (2006). Evolution. Traversing the adaptive landscape in snapdragons. Science (New York, N.Y.), 313(5789), 924–925.
A journal article with 3 authors
Benton, R., Vannice, K. S., & Vosshall, L. B. (2007). An essential role for a CD36-related receptor in pheromone detection in Drosophila. Nature, 450(7167), 289–293.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Rondelez, Y., Tresset, G., Nakashima, T., Kato-Yamada, Y., Fujita, H., Takeuchi, S., & Noji, H. (2005). Highly coupled ATP synthesis by F1-ATPase single molecules. Nature, 433(7027), 773–777.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Eklund, C., Marks, R. B., Ponnuswamy, S., Stanwood, K. L., & van Waes, N. J. M. (2011). WirelessMAN®. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Eppstein, D. (2008). Media Theory: Interdisciplinary Applied Mathematics. (J.-C. Falmagne & S. Ovchinnikov, Eds.) (First edition). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Hwang, Y.-S., & Kearney, P. (2015). Study One: Mindfulness Intervention for Mothers. In P. Kearney (Ed.), A Mindfulness Intervention for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: New Directions in Research and Practice (pp. 59–91). Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Methods in Ecology and Evolution.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2014, July 25). Scientists Develop Bioplastic From Food Scraps. Retrieved 30 October 2018, from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1989). ADP Acquisition: Air Force Logistics System Modernization Projects (No. IMTEC-89-42). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Boylan, M. (2010). Acute physiological resonses to yoga activity in a hot environment (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Eligon, J., & Bosman, J. (2017, July 27). Kansas Governor’s Tenure May Serve as a Warning for Conservatives. New York Times, p. A12.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Smaglik, 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Smaglik, 2002; Kramer & Donohue, 2006).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Kramer & Donohue, 2006)
  • Three authors: (Benton, Vannice, & Vosshall, 2007)
  • 6 or more authors: (Rondelez et al., 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleMethods in Ecology and Evolution
AbbreviationMethods Ecol. Evol.
ISSN (online)2041-210X
ScopeEcology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
Ecological Modelling

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