How to format your references using the Metamaterials citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Metamaterials. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
C.P. McKay, Planetary science. Biologically reversible exploration, Science. 323 (2009) 718.
A journal article with 2 authors
R.L. Cifelli, B.M. Davis, Paleontology. Marsupial origins, Science. 302 (2003) 1899–1900.
A journal article with 3 authors
T.-S. Mei, H.H. Patel, M.S. Sigman, Enantioselective construction of remote quaternary stereocentres, Nature. 508 (2014) 340–344.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
T. Hashishin, Z. Tan, K. Yamamoto, N. Qiu, J. Kim, C. Numako, T. Naka, J.C. Valmalette, S. Ohara, Quenching ilmenite with a high-temperature and high-pressure phase using super-high-energy ball milling, Sci. Rep. 4 (2014) 4700.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
J.T. Smith, Methods of Geometry, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 1999.
An edited book
W.-Y. Chen, J. Seiner, T. Suzuki, M. Lackner, eds., Handbook of Climate Change Mitigation, Springer US, New York, NY, 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
J. Galtung, D. Fischer, Conflict Transformation by Peaceful Means (The Transcend Method), in: D. Fischer (Ed.), Johan Galtung: Pioneer of Peace Research, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2013: pp. 59–69.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Metamaterials.

Blog post
T. Hale, Hundreds Of Laboratory-Riased Chimpanzees Are About To Experience Freedom For The First Time, IFLScience. (2016).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Stafford Student Loans: Prompt Payment of Origination Fees Could Reduce Costs, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1992.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
B.P. Ramotar-John, Supplementing soybean meal with Camelina (Camelina sativa) in tilapia diets and optimizing commercial tilapia diets for use in intensive systems in the Western region of the United States, Doctoral dissertation, University of Arizona, 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
J.B. Stewart, Case Study in Chaos: Management Experts Grade a Trump White House, New York Times. (2017) B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleMetamaterials
ISSN (print)1873-1988
ScopeElectrical and Electronic Engineering
Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
Modelling and Simulation
Condensed Matter Physics
Surfaces and Interfaces

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