How to format your references using the Metamaterials citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Metamaterials. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
M. Buckingham, A cellular cornucopia, Nature. 408 (2000) 773.
A journal article with 2 authors
D.J. Norris, E.S. Aydil, Materials science. Getting Moore from solar cells, Science. 338 (2012) 625–626.
A journal article with 3 authors
J.D. Clayton, C.P. Kyriacou, S.M. Reppert, Keeping time with the human genome, Nature. 409 (2001) 829–831.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Y.-W. Hsieh, C.-Y. Huang, S.-Y. Yang, Y.-H. Peng, C.-P. Yu, P.-D.L. Chao, Y.-C. Hou, Oral intake of curcumin markedly activated CYP 3A4: in vivo and ex-vivo studies, Sci. Rep. 4 (2014) 6587.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
C. Matthews, Engineers’ Data Book, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK, 2012.
An edited book
B. Goertzel, L. Orseau, J. Snaider, eds., Artificial General Intelligence: 7th International Conference, AGI 2014, Quebec City, QC, Canada, August 1-4, 2014. Proceedings, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
J.O. Morales, A.B. Watts, J.T. McConville, Mechanical Particle-Size Reduction Techniques, in: R.O. Williams III, A.B. Watts, D.A. Miller (Eds.), Formulating Poorly Water Soluble Drugs, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2016: pp. 165–213.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Metamaterials.

Blog post
E. Andrew, Cartwheeling Spider Discovered, IFLScience. (2014). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Maritime Administration: Proceeds from the Sale of Obsolete Vessels Were Accounted for, Allocated, and Disbursed Consistent with Applicable Law, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2017.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
J. Connelly, A tradition of excellence transitions to the 21 st century: Hungarian mathematics education, 1988-2008, Doctoral dissertation, Columbia University, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
J. David Goodman, Tears and Anger in Queens After Mother Loses Another Son to Violence, New York Times. (2015) A26.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleMetamaterials
ISSN (print)1873-1988
ScopeElectrical and Electronic Engineering
Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
Modelling and Simulation
Condensed Matter Physics
Surfaces and Interfaces

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