How to format your references using the Metamaterials citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Metamaterials. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
D.J. Stevenson, Planetary science. Jupiter and its moons, Science. 294 (2001) 71–72.
A journal article with 2 authors
D.F. Perepichka, F. Rosei, Chemistry. Extending polymer conjugation into the second dimension, Science. 323 (2009) 216–217.
A journal article with 3 authors
H. Ochman, J.G. Lawrence, E.A. Groisman, Lateral gene transfer and the nature of bacterial innovation, Nature. 405 (2000) 299–304.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
J. Li, Q. Shi, Y. Bai, C. Pu, Y. Tang, H. Yuan, Y. Wu, Q. Wei, P. Han, Efficacy and safety of muscarinic antagonists as add-on therapy for male lower urinary tract symptoms, Sci. Rep. 4 (2014) 3948.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
T. Ronen, The Positive Power of Imagery, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK, 2011.
An edited book
J.-C. Bertrand, P. Caumette, P. Lebaron, R. Matheron, P. Normand, T. Sime-Ngando, eds., Environmental Microbiology: Fundamentals and Applications: Microbial Ecology, Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
M. Yang, Y. Yang, Network Coding in Application Layer Multicast, in: Y. Qin (Ed.), Network Coding at Different Layers in Wireless Networks, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2016: pp. 117–177.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Metamaterials.

Blog post
C. Carpineti, How Much Does Your Personality Change When You Drink?, IFLScience. (2017).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Federally Funded Research Centers: Agency Reviews of Employee Compensation and Center Performance, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2014.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
R.W. McKinney, The Optimal Balance of Liberal Education and Career Readiness in the Context of the American Promise: A Critical Analysis of the American Association of Colleges and Universities Liberal Education and America’s Promise Challenge, Doctoral dissertation, University of Louisiana, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
M. Adkins, The Race to Beat ‘Best Before,’ New York Times. (2014) MB3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleMetamaterials
ISSN (print)1873-1988
ScopeElectrical and Electronic Engineering
Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
Modelling and Simulation
Condensed Matter Physics
Surfaces and Interfaces

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