How to format your references using the Metamaterials citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Metamaterials. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Z. Sardar, Beyond the troubled relationship, Nature. 448 (2007) 131–133.
A journal article with 2 authors
E. Apostolou, K. Hochedlinger, Chromatin dynamics during cellular reprogramming, Nature. 502 (2013) 462–471.
A journal article with 3 authors
S.-J. Park, T.A. Taton, C.A. Mirkin, Array-based electrical detection of DNA with nanoparticle probes, Science. 295 (2002) 1503–1506.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
L. Zhang, C. Israel, A. Biswas, R.L. Greene, A. de Lozanne, Direct observation of percolation in a manganite thin film, Science. 298 (2002) 805–807.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
M. Britton, YouthNation, John Wiley & Sons, Inc, Hoboken, NJ, 2015.
An edited book
E.V. der Eycken, C.O. Kappe, eds., Microwave-Assisted Synthesis of Heterocycles, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2006.
A chapter in an edited book
C. Tuniz, R. Gillespie, C. Jones, La vera età della Donna di Mungo, in: R. Gillespie, C. Jones (Eds.), I Lettori Di Ossa, Springer, Milano, 2010: pp. 31–56.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Metamaterials.

Blog post
J. O`Callaghan, “Surfing” Antimatter Breakthrough Could Accelerate The Hunt For Exotic Particles, IFLScience. (2015). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Tax Systems Modernization: Management and Technical Weaknesses Must Be Corrected If Modernization Is to Succeed, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1995.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
R. Jin, Graph-Based Rhythm Interpretation in Optical Music Recognition, Doctoral dissertation, Indiana University, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
L. Lee, Greasing a Squeaky Wheel, New York Times. (2014) D3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleMetamaterials
ISSN (print)1873-1988
ScopeElectrical and Electronic Engineering
Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
Modelling and Simulation
Condensed Matter Physics
Surfaces and Interfaces

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