How to format your references using the Metamaterials citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Metamaterials. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
A. Lawler, Archaeology. America’s lost city, Science. 334 (2011) 1618–1623.
A journal article with 2 authors
J.K.M. Brown, M.S. Hovmøller, Aerial dispersal of pathogens on the global and continental scales and its impact on plant disease, Science. 297 (2002) 537–541.
A journal article with 3 authors
G. Arnqvist, T.M. Jones, M.A. Elgar, Insect behaviour: reversal of sex roles in nuptial feeding, Nature. 424 (2003) 387.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
C. Aubert, M.H. Vos, P. Mathis, A.P. Eker, K. Brettel, Intraprotein radical transfer during photoactivation of DNA photolyase, Nature. 405 (2000) 586–590.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
R.S. Snell, M.A. Lemp, Clinical Anatomy of the Eye, Blackwell Science Ltd,., Oxford, UK, 1997.
An edited book
L.I. Manevitch, Tractable Models of Solid Mechanics: Formulation, Analysis and Interpretation, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
H.M. Farrell, E.M. Brown, E.L. Malin, Higher Order Structures of the Caseins: A Paradox?, in: P.L.H. McSweeney, P.F. Fox (Eds.), Advanced Dairy Chemistry: Volume 1A: Proteins: Basic Aspects, 4th Edition, Springer US, Boston, MA, 2013: pp. 161–184.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Metamaterials.

Blog post
J. Davis, Tubby Jaguar “Too Fat To Breed,” According To His Keepers, IFLScience. (2015). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Severe Storms Research Activities, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1979.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
C. Lindemann-Litzsinger, Investigating the Possible Relationship Between Participation in High School Athletics and First-Generation College Student Persistence to College Graduation, Doctoral dissertation, Lindenwood University, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.
New York Times article
J. McAULEY, The Artists and Their Alley, New York Times. (2016) M2178.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleMetamaterials
ISSN (print)1873-1988
ScopeElectrical and Electronic Engineering
Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
Modelling and Simulation
Condensed Matter Physics
Surfaces and Interfaces

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