How to format your references using the Metals citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Metals. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Oldroyd, G.E.D. Plant Science. Nodules and Hormones. Science 2007, 315, 52–53.
A journal article with 2 authors
Leontis, N.B.; Westhof, E. Chemistry. Self-Assembled RNA Nanostructures. Science 2014, 345, 732–733.
A journal article with 3 authors
Brose, U.; Williams, R.J.; Martinez, N.D. Comment on “Foraging Adaptation and the Relationship between Food-Web Complexity and Stability.” Science 2003, 301, 918; author reply 918.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Wimberly, B.T.; Brodersen, D.E.; Clemons, W.M., Jr; Morgan-Warren, R.J.; Carter, A.P.; Vonrhein, C.; Hartsch, T.; Ramakrishnan, V. Structure of the 30S Ribosomal Subunit. Nature 2000, 407, 327–339.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Blanchet, G.; Charbit, M. Digital Signal and Image Processing Using Matlab®; John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: Hoboken, NJ, 2015; ISBN 9781118999592.
An edited book
Gender and Sexuality in Latin America - Cases and Decisions; Motta, C., Saez, M., Eds.; Ius Gentium: Comparative Perspectives on Law and Justice; Springer Netherlands: Dordrecht, 2013; Vol. 24; ISBN 9789400761988.
A chapter in an edited book
Chin, A.; Chignell, M. DISSECT: Data-Intensive Socially Similar Evolving Community Tracker. In Computational Social Network Analysis: Trends, Tools and Research Advances; Abraham, A., Hassanien, A.-E., Sná¿el, V., Eds.; Computer Communications and Networks; Springer: London, 2010; pp. 81–105 ISBN 9781848822283.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Metals.

Blog post
Andrew, E. Thailand Confirms First MERS Case Available online: (accessed on 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Transportation Security Administration: More Clarity on the Authority of Federal Security Directors Is Needed; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 2005;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Swinford, R.R. Adapted Dance - Connecting Mind, Body and Soul. Doctoral dissertation, Indiana University: Bloomington, IN, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Perlstein, L. The Transformer. New York Times 2008, BR19.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleMetals
AbbreviationMetals (Basel)
ISSN (online)2075-4701

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