How to format your references using the Metals citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Metals. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
O’Connor, S.E. PLANT BIOCHEMISTRY. Fighting Cancer While Saving the Mayapple. Science 2015, 349, 1167–1168.
A journal article with 2 authors
Jones, P.A.; Takai, D. The Role of DNA Methylation in Mammalian Epigenetics. Science 2001, 293, 1068–1070.
A journal article with 3 authors
Young, K.V.; Brodie, E.D., Jr; Brodie, E.D., 3rd How the Horned Lizard Got Its Horns. Science 2004, 304, 65.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Kim, M.; McCormick, S.; Timmermans, M.; Sinha, N. The Expression Domain of PHANTASTICA Determines Leaflet Placement in Compound Leaves. Nature 2003, 424, 438–443.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Phillips, J.J.; Brantley, W.; Phillips, P.P. Project Management ROI; John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: Hoboken, NJ, 2011; ISBN 9781118122587.
An edited book
Autonomic and Trusted Computing: 6th International Conference, ATC 2009 Brisbane, Australia, July 7-9, 2009 Proceedings; González Nieto, J., Reif, W., Wang, G., Indulska, J., Eds.; Lecture Notes in Computer Science; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2009; Vol. 5586; ISBN 9783642027031.
A chapter in an edited book
Broda, S.; Cavadas, S.; Ferreira, M.; Moreira, N. Deciding Synchronous Kleene Algebra with Derivatives. In Implementation and Application of Automata: 20th International Conference, CIAA 2015, Umeå, Sweden, August 18-21, 2015, Proceedings; Drewes, F., Ed.; Lecture Notes in Computer Science; Springer International Publishing: Cham, 2015; pp. 49–62 ISBN 9783319223599.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Metals.

Blog post
Andrew, E. Quasar Sheds Light On A Twin Black Hole Secret Available online: (accessed on 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Flexibility Demonstration Programs: Education Needs to Better Target Program Information; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 2003;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Holmstedt, C. Low Voltage Switched-Current Cell and Its Application. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach: Long Beach, CA, 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Poniewozik, J. Heard the One About the Angsty Comic? New York Times 2017, AR18.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleMetals
AbbreviationMetals (Basel)
ISSN (online)2075-4701

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