How to format your references using the Metals citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Metals. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Arendt, A.A. Geophysics. Assessing the Status of Alaska’s Glaciers. Science 2011, 332, 1044–1045.
A journal article with 2 authors
Chen, J.; Novick, R.P. Phage-Mediated Intergeneric Transfer of Toxin Genes. Science 2009, 323, 139–141.
A journal article with 3 authors
Sato, T.; Atomi, H.; Imanaka, T. Archaeal Type III RuBisCOs Function in a Pathway for AMP Metabolism. Science 2007, 315, 1003–1006.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Stutchbury, B.J.M.; Tarof, S.A.; Done, T.; Gow, E.; Kramer, P.M.; Tautin, J.; Fox, J.W.; Afanasyev, V. Tracking Long-Distance Songbird Migration by Using Geolocators. Science 2009, 323, 896.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Lunt, R.R.; Cunic, J.D. Profiles in Flue Gas Desulfurization; John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: Hoboken, NJ, 2000; ISBN 9780470935446.
An edited book
Vertical Scar Mammaplasty; Hamdi, M., Hammond, D.C., Nahai, F., Eds.; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2005; ISBN 9783540221012.
A chapter in an edited book
Price, P. Honor and Morality in Contemporary Rural India. In New Perspectives in Political Ethnography; Joseph, L., Mahler, M., Auyero, J., Eds.; Springer: New York, NY, 2007; pp. 88–109 ISBN 9780387725932.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Metals.

Blog post
Fang, J. Breaking Waves Disturb Earth’s Magnetic Field (accessed on 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Ocean Research Fleet: NOAA Needs to Plan for Long-Term Fleet Requirements; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1989;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Vargas, A.R. Implementing Modern Geographic Technology in the Trucking Industry: A Case Study. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach: Long Beach, CA, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
St. JOHN KELLY, E. Navy Yard, Recommissioned. New York Times 1998, 148.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleMetals
AbbreviationMetals (Basel)
ISSN (online)2075-4701

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