How to format your references using the Metals citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Metals. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Fine, I. Sensory systems: Do you hear what I see? Nature 2014, 508, 461–462.
A journal article with 2 authors
Blander, J.M.; Medzhitov, R. Regulation of phagosome maturation by signals from toll-like receptors. Science 2004, 304, 1014–1018.
A journal article with 3 authors
Dominici, F.; Greenstone, M.; Sunstein, C.R. Science and regulation. Particulate matter matters. Science 2014, 344, 257–259.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Dominguez-Sola, D.; Ying, C.Y.; Grandori, C.; Ruggiero, L.; Chen, B.; Li, M.; Galloway, D.A.; Gu, W.; Gautier, J.; Dalla-Favera, R. Non-transcriptional control of DNA replication by c-Myc. Nature 2007, 448, 445–451.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
German Concrete and Construction Cl Beispiele zur Bemessung Nach Eurocode 2; Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH: D-69451 Weinheim, Germany, 2011; ISBN 9783433602881.
An edited book
Neves, M.F. The orange juice business: A Brazilian perspective; Trombin, V.G., Lopes, F.F., Kalaki, R., Milan, P., Eds.; Wageningen Academic Publishers: Wageningen, 2012; ISBN 9789086867394.
A chapter in an edited book
Dransfield, I.; Farnworth, S. Axl and Mer Receptor Tyrosine Kinases: Distinct and Nonoverlapping Roles in Inflammation and Cancer? In Apoptosis in Cancer Pathogenesis and Anti-cancer Therapy: New Perspectives and Opportunities; Gregory, C.D., Ed.; Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology; Springer International Publishing: Cham, 2016; pp. 113–132 ISBN 9783319394046.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Metals.

Blog post
Fang, J. Cretaceous Bird Fossil Suggests Similar Digestive Features As Modern Birds Available online: (accessed on Oct 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Submarine Technology: Transition Plans Needed to Realize Gains From DOD Advanced Research; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1990;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Thomas-Whitman, D. Treading water: Civic engagement efforts in a time of budget crisis at a public university. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach: Long Beach, CA, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Crow, K. At This Park, There’s No Such Thing as a Free Bench. New York Times 2000, 147.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleMetals
AbbreviationMetals (Basel)
ISSN (online)2075-4701

Other styles