How to format your references using the Metals citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Metals. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hoogland, J.L. Prairie Dogs Disperse When All Close Kin Have Disappeared. Science 2013, 339, 1205–1207.
A journal article with 2 authors
Logan, G.D.; Crump, M.J.C. Cognitive Illusions of Authorship Reveal Hierarchical Error Detection in Skilled Typists. Science 2010, 330, 683–686.
A journal article with 3 authors
Rawson, F.J.; Downard, A.J.; Baronian, K.H. Electrochemical Detection of Intracellular and Cell Membrane Redox Systems in Saccharomyces Cerevisiae. Sci. Rep. 2014, 4, 5216.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Park, T.; Sidorov, V.A.; Ronning, F.; Zhu, J.-X.; Tokiwa, Y.; Lee, H.; Bauer, E.D.; Movshovich, R.; Sarrao, J.L.; Thompson, J.D. Isotropic Quantum Scattering and Unconventional Superconductivity. Nature 2008, 456, 366–368.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Keegan, K.D. Biotechnology Valuation; John Wiley & Sons Ltd: Oxford, UK, 2008; ISBN 9781118673508.
An edited book
Organic-Inorganic Halide Perovskite Photovoltaics: From Fundamentals to Device Architectures; Park, N.-G., Grätzel, M., Miyasaka, T., Eds.; Springer International Publishing: Cham, 2016; ISBN 9783319351124.
A chapter in an edited book
Park, I.K.; Kim, G. Innovation of ICT Manufacturing and Agglomeration Economies: Evolution over the Life Cycle. In Quantitative Regional Economic and Environmental Analysis for Sustainability in Korea; Kim, E., Kim, B.H.S., Eds.; New Frontiers in Regional Science: Asian Perspectives; Springer: Singapore, 2016; pp. 69–87 ISBN 9789811002984.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Metals.

Blog post
Andrew, E. Scientists Turn Bacteria Into DNA Tape Recorders Available online: (accessed on 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Status of Office of Education’s National Direct Student Loan Funds at Selected Postsecondary Education Institutions; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1978;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Cosma, A.C. Real-Time Individual Thermal Preferences Prediction Using Visual Sensors. Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University: Washington, DC, 2019.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Cook, L.; Olsen, P.R. It Started at the Gas Pump. New York Times 2009, BU9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleMetals
AbbreviationMetals (Basel)
ISSN (online)2075-4701

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