How to format your references using the Linguistics and Philosophy citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Linguistics and Philosophy. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Costandi, M. (2013). Neurodegeneration: amyloid awakenings. Nature, 497(7450), S19-20.
A journal article with 2 authors
Yamagata, M., & Sanes, J. R. (2008). Dscam and Sidekick proteins direct lamina-specific synaptic connections in vertebrate retina. Nature, 451(7177), 465–469.
A journal article with 3 authors
Sharma, B. R., Manjanath, A., & Singh, A. K. (2014). Pentahexoctite: a new two-dimensional allotrope of carbon. Scientific reports, 4, 7164.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Ishizaki, K., Johzuka-Hisatomi, Y., Ishida, S., Iida, S., & Kohchi, T. (2013). Homologous recombination-mediated gene targeting in the liverwort Marchantia polymorpha L. Scientific reports, 3, 1532.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
D’Amico, G., Di Biase, G., Janssen, J., & Manca, R. (2017). Semi-Markov Migration Models for Credit Risk. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Blot, J. (2014). Infinite-Horizon Optimal Control in the Discrete-Time Framework. (N. Hayek, Ed.). New York, NY: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Chen, H., Zeng, D., & Yan, P. (2010). Data Visualization, Information Dissemination, and Alerting. In D. Zeng & P. Yan (Eds.), Infectious Disease Informatics: Syndromic Surveillance for Public Health and BioDefense (pp. 73–87). Boston, MA: Springer US.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Linguistics and Philosophy.

Blog post
Fang, J. (2015, April 13). DNA from Feces Reveals that Vampire Bats Thirst for Pork Most. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1992). Attack Warning: Status of the Survivable Communications Integration System (No. IMTEC-92-61BR). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Iniguez, D. (2013). Mentoring through performing arts; A grant proposal for at risk youth in middle school (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Gordon, M. R. (2017, June 20). U.S. Fighter Downs Drone Over Syria. New York Times, p. A8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Costandi 2013).
This sentence cites two references (Costandi 2013; Yamagata and Sanes 2008).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Yamagata and Sanes 2008)
  • Three or more authors: (Ishizaki et al. 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleLinguistics and Philosophy
AbbreviationLinguist. Philos.
ISSN (print)0165-0157
ISSN (online)1573-0549
Linguistics and Language

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