How to format your references using the Linguistics and Philosophy citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Linguistics and Philosophy. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Merryfield, B. (2005). Ocean science. Ocean mixing in 10 steps. Science (New York, N.Y.), 308(5722), 641–642.
A journal article with 2 authors
Murry, C. E., & Lee, R. T. (2009). Development biology. Turnover after the fallout. Science (New York, N.Y.), 324(5923), 47–48.
A journal article with 3 authors
van den Engh, G., Nelson, P., & Roach, J. (2000). Numismatic gyrations. Nature, 408(6812), 540.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Sinclair, R. C., Mark, M. M., Moore, S. E., Lavis, C. A., & Soldat, A. S. (2000). An electoral butterfly effect. Nature, 408(6813), 665–666.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Unmehopa, M., Vemuri, K., & Bennett, A. (2006). Parlay/OSA. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Jøsang, A., & Carlsson, B. (Eds.). (2012). Secure IT Systems: 17th Nordic Conference, NordSec 2012, Karlskrona, Sweden, October 31 – November 2, 2012. Proceedings (Vol. 7617). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Brown, M., & Heaton, S. (2015). Ko Ahau Te Awa Ko Te Awa Ko Ahau – I Am the River, and the River is me. In M. Robertson, R. Lawrence, & G. Heath (Eds.), Experiencing the Outdoors: Enhancing Strategies for Wellbeing (pp. 49–60). Rotterdam: SensePublishers.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Linguistics and Philosophy.

Blog post
Hamilton, K. (2016, October 10). Nobel Prize-Winning Autophagy Research Laid Groundwork For Potential Parkinson’s Treatment. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1994). Total Quality Education (No. HEHS-94-76R). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Wester, A. M. (2013). Readers’ trust, socio-demographic, and acuity influences in citizen journalism credibility for disrupted online newspapers (Doctoral dissertation). University of Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Chira, S. (2015, May 4). One Brew Does Not Fit All. New York Times, p. D7.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Merryfield 2005).
This sentence cites two references (Merryfield 2005; Murry and Lee 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Murry and Lee 2009)
  • Three or more authors: (Sinclair et al. 2000)

About the journal

Full journal titleLinguistics and Philosophy
AbbreviationLinguist. Philos.
ISSN (print)0165-0157
ISSN (online)1573-0549
Linguistics and Language

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