How to format your references using the Linguistics and Philosophy citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Linguistics and Philosophy. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Machens, C. K. (2012). Neuroscience. Building the human brain. Science (New York, N.Y.), 338(6111), 1156–1157.
A journal article with 2 authors
Romanowicz, B., & Gung, Y. (2002). Superplumes from the core-mantle boundary to the lithosphere: implications for heat flux. Science (New York, N.Y.), 296(5567), 513–516.
A journal article with 3 authors
Bordenstein, S. R., O’Hara, F. P., & Werren, J. H. (2001). Wolbachia-induced incompatibility precedes other hybrid incompatibilities in Nasonia. Nature, 409(6821), 707–710.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Molnár, A., Schwach, F., Studholme, D. J., Thuenemann, E. C., & Baulcombe, D. C. (2007). miRNAs control gene expression in the single-cell alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Nature, 447(7148), 1126–1129.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Jelaska, D. (2012). Gears and Gear Drives. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Sun, Y., Behal, A., & Chung, C.-K. R. (Eds.). (2015). New Development in Robot Vision (Vol. 23). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Barkowsky, T. (2007). Modeling Mental Spatial Knowledge Processing. In F. Mast & L. Jäncke (Eds.), Spatial Processing in Navigation, Imagery and Perception (pp. 67–84). Boston, MA: Springer US.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Linguistics and Philosophy.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2014, August 9). Trailer For New Stephen Hawking Biopic Will Make You Cry. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1999). Tax Systems Modernization: Results of Review of IRS’ Initial Expenditure Plan (No. AIMD/GGD-99-206). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Brugna, R. A. (2008). Augmenting the clinical clerkship curriculum of a physician assistant training program with distance education technology: Educational outcomes and student perceptions (Doctoral dissertation). Capella University, Minneapolis, MN.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wilson, M. (2017, June 7). 47 Years Later, a Murder Victim Defined by Aliases Has a Name. New York Times, p. A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Machens 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Machens 2012; Romanowicz and Gung 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Romanowicz and Gung 2002)
  • Three or more authors: (Molnár et al. 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleLinguistics and Philosophy
AbbreviationLinguist. Philos.
ISSN (print)0165-0157
ISSN (online)1573-0549
Linguistics and Language

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