How to format your references using the Linguistics and Philosophy citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Linguistics and Philosophy. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Berg, P. (2008). Meetings that changed the world: Asilomar 1975: DNA modification secured. Nature, 455(7211), 290–291.
A journal article with 2 authors
Showalter, M. R., & Hamilton, D. P. (2015). Resonant interactions and chaotic rotation of Pluto’s small moons. Nature, 522(7554), 45–49.
A journal article with 3 authors
Charrier, I., Mathevon, N., & Jouventin, P. (2001). Mother’s voice recognition by seal pups. Nature, 412(6850), 873.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Ferguson, N. M., Ghani, A. C., Donnelly, C. A., Hagenaars, T. J., & Anderson, R. M. (2002). Estimating the human health risk from possible BSE infection of the British sheep flock. Nature, 415(6870), 420–424.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Gordon, M. E. (2009). Trump University Entrepreneurship 101. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Flüchter, A., & Richter, S. (Eds.). (2012). Structures on the Move: Technologies of Governance in Transcultural Encounter. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Drechsler, N., & Drechsler, R. (2006). Exploration of Sequential Depth by Evolutionary Algorithms. In M. Glesner, R. Reis, L. Indrusiak, V. Mooney, & H. Eveking (Eds.), VLSI-SOC: From Systems to Chips: IFIP TC 10/ WG 10.5 Twelfth International Conference on Very Large Scale Integration of System on Chip (VLSI-SoC 2003), December 1–3, 2003, Darmstadt, Germany (pp. 73–83). Boston, MA: Springer US.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Linguistics and Philosophy.

Blog post
Taub, B. (2016, June 2). See A Rare Monkey “Chatter” To A Camera. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2006). Social Security Numbers: Stronger Protections Needed When Contractors Have Access to SSNs (No. GAO-06-238). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Wignall, J. (2013). No longer in the shadows: Identity, citizenship, and belonging among undocumented college students in Southern California (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey, G. (2009, December 15). Hostesses as Recruiters? How Far Is Too Far? New York Times, p. B11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Berg 2008).
This sentence cites two references (Berg 2008; Showalter and Hamilton 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Showalter and Hamilton 2015)
  • Three or more authors: (Ferguson et al. 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleLinguistics and Philosophy
AbbreviationLinguist. Philos.
ISSN (print)0165-0157
ISSN (online)1573-0549
Linguistics and Language

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