How to format your references using the Ecological Monographs citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Ecological Monographs. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hambley, T. W. 2007. Chemistry. Metal-based therapeutics. Science (New York, N.Y.) 318:1392–1393.
A journal article with 2 authors
Crombie, A. T., and J. C. Murrell. 2014. Trace-gas metabolic versatility of the facultative methanotroph Methylocella silvestris. Nature 510:148–151.
A journal article with 3 authors
Lohrer, A. M., S. F. Thrush, and M. M. Gibbs. 2004. Bioturbators enhance ecosystem function through complex biogeochemical interactions. Nature 431:1092–1095.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Ishikawa, K., K. Takenaga, M. Akimoto, N. Koshikawa, A. Yamaguchi, H. Imanishi, K. Nakada, Y. Honma, and J.-I. Hayashi. 2008. ROS-generating mitochondrial DNA mutations can regulate tumor cell metastasis. Science (New York, N.Y.) 320:661–664.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Scott, D. M. 2009. World Wide Rave. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Goldreich, O., A. L. Rosenberg, and A. L. Selman, editors. 2006. Theoretical Computer Science: Essays in Memory of Shimon Even. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Stelzer, V., and A. Quintero. 2014. Climate Change Impacts on the Energy Sector and Adaptation Options. Pages 81–105 in K. Krellenberg and B. Hansjürgens, editors. Climate Adaptation Santiago. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Ecological Monographs.

Blog post
Fang, J. 2014, April 4. Dating The Moon. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2010. Student Loans: Federal Web-based Tool on Private Loans Would Pose Implementation Challenges and May Be Unnecessary. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Crane, C. C. 2017. A Qualitative Study on the Preferred Working Environment of Southern California Secondary Teachers with Experience in Both a District Traditional School and a District Charter School. Doctoral dissertation, Pepperdine University, Malibu, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Gustines, G. G. 2015, November 7. Iceman Comes Out. New York Times:C3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Hambley 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Hambley 2007, Crombie and Murrell 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Crombie and Murrell 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Ishikawa et al. 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleEcological Monographs
AbbreviationEcol. Monogr.
ISSN (print)0012-9615
ISSN (online)1557-7015
ScopeEcology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics

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