How to format your references using the Ecological Monographs citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Ecological Monographs. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Sachdev, H. 2015. MATERIALS SCIENCE. Disclosing boron’s thinnest side. Science (New York, N.Y.) 350:1468–1469.
A journal article with 2 authors
Drenkard, E., and F. M. Ausubel. 2002. Pseudomonas biofilm formation and antibiotic resistance are linked to phenotypic variation. Nature 416:740–743.
A journal article with 3 authors
Laepple, T., M. Werner, and G. Lohmann. 2011. Synchronicity of Antarctic temperatures and local solar insolation on orbital timescales. Nature 471:91–94.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Mold, M., H. Eriksson, P. Siesjö, A. Darabi, E. Shardlow, and C. Exley. 2014. Unequivocal identification of intracellular aluminium adjuvant in a monocytic THP-1 cell line. Scientific reports 4:6287.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Coombs, W. T., and S. J. Holladay. 2011. Managing Corporate Social Responsibility. Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK.
An edited book
Khatib, O., V. Kumar, and D. Rus, editors. 2008. Experimental Robotics: The 10th International Symposium on Experimental Robotics. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Velázquez, A., C. Medina García, E. Durán Medina, A. Amador, and L. F. Gopar Merino. 2016. SECLAVEMEX Aimed at Integrating Land-cover and Vegetation Mapping. Pages 75–88 in C. Medina García, E. Durán Medina, A. Amador, and L. F. Gopar Merino, editors. Standardized Hierarchical Vegetation Classification: Mexican and Global Patterns. Springer International Publishing, Cham.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Ecological Monographs.

Blog post
Andrew, E. 2014, January 6. Action shot of sexual reproduction of 100-million-year-old-flower has been preserved in amber. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1973. Protest of Army Contract Award for Satellite Station. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Kim, S. B. 2010. Model uncertainty and model averaging in the estimation of benchmark dose. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse, L. 2006, June 29. justices uphold most remapping in texas by g.o.p. New York Times:A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Sachdev 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Drenkard and Ausubel 2002, Sachdev 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Drenkard and Ausubel 2002)
  • Three or more authors: (Mold et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleEcological Monographs
AbbreviationEcol. Monogr.
ISSN (print)0012-9615
ISSN (online)1557-7015
ScopeEcology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics

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