How to format your references using the Ecological Monographs citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Ecological Monographs. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Glikson, A. 2004. Comment on “Bedout: a possible end-Permian impact crater offshore of Northwestern Australia.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 306:613; author reply 613.
A journal article with 2 authors
Padoa-Schioppa, C., and J. A. Assad. 2006. Neurons in the orbitofrontal cortex encode economic value. Nature 441:223–226.
A journal article with 3 authors
Passarelli, L., E. Rivalta, and A. Shuler. 2014. Dike intrusions during rifting episodes obey scaling relationships similar to earthquakes. Scientific reports 4:3886.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Murphy, K., K. A. Frazer, G. Loots, and E. M. Rubin. 2000. Database searches for binding sites. Science (New York, N.Y.) 288:2319a.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Taroni, F., A. Biedermann, S. Bozza, P. Garbolino, and C. Aitken. 2014. Bayesian Networks for Probabilistic Inference and Decision Analysis in Forensic Science. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Drira, K., editor. 2013. Software Architecture: 7th European Conference, ECSA 2013, Montpellier, France, July 1-5, 2013. Proceedings. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Kamat, R. K., S. A. Shinde, and V. G. Shelake. 2009. Arithmetic Core Design and Design Reuse of Soft IP Cores. Pages 81–113 in S. A. Shinde and V. G. Shelake, editors. Unleash the System On Chip using FPGAs and Handel C. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Ecological Monographs.

Blog post
Andrew, E. 2014, December 5. Watch A Man Deliver Three Baby Sharks From Dead Mother With Emergency C-Section. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1985. Evaluation of Army’s Mobile Subscriber Equipment Program. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Rodriguez, J. M. 2011. A recruitment campaign for Latino non-kin foster parents: A grant proposal. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Gordon, M. R. 2017, September 1. Defense Secretary Says He Didn’t Contradict President. New York Times:A8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Glikson 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Glikson 2004, Padoa-Schioppa and Assad 2006).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Padoa-Schioppa and Assad 2006)
  • Three or more authors: (Murphy et al. 2000)

About the journal

Full journal titleEcological Monographs
AbbreviationEcol. Monogr.
ISSN (print)0012-9615
ISSN (online)1557-7015
ScopeEcology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics

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