How to format your references using the Ecological Monographs citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Ecological Monographs. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Smaglik, P. 2004. Granting longevity. Nature 430:947.
A journal article with 2 authors
Lake, J. K., and A. Ostling. 2009. Comment on “Functional traits and niche-based tree community assembly in an Amazonian forest.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 324:1015; author reply 1015.
A journal article with 3 authors
Meylan, E., J. Tschopp, and M. Karin. 2006. Intracellular pattern recognition receptors in the host response. Nature 442:39–44.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Di Paolo, G., L. Pellegrini, K. Letinic, G. Cestra, R. Zoncu, S. Voronov, S. Chang, J. Guo, M. R. Wenk, and P. De Camilli. 2002. Recruitment and regulation of phosphatidylinositol phosphate kinase type 1 gamma by the FERM domain of talin. Nature 420:85–89.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Green, S. D. 2011. Making Sense of Construction Improvement. Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK.
An edited book
Lenard, T. M., and R. J. May, editors. 2006. Net Neutrality or Net Neutering: Should Broadband Internet Services be Regulated. Springer US, Boston, MA.
A chapter in an edited book
McCarthy, E. F. 2010. Metabolic Bone Disorders. Pages 61–68 in E. F. McCarthy and P. J. Zhang, editors. Essentials in Bone and Soft-Tissue Pathology. Springer US, Boston, MA.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Ecological Monographs.

Blog post
Andrew, D. 2016, December 12. Ice ages Have Been Linked To The Earth’s Wobbly Orbit – But When Is The Next One? IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1990. Implementation of the Technology Transfer Act: A Preliminary Assessment. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Igualada, M. O. 2015. The beliefs of advanced placement teachers regarding equity and access to advanced placement courses: A mixed-methods study. Doctoral dissertation, Florida Atlantic University, Boca Raton, FL.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wagner, J. 2016, December 24. Indians Open Wallet After Coming Up Short. New York Times:D5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Smaglik 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Smaglik 2004, Lake and Ostling 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Lake and Ostling 2009)
  • Three or more authors: (Di Paolo et al. 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleEcological Monographs
AbbreviationEcol. Monogr.
ISSN (print)0012-9615
ISSN (online)1557-7015
ScopeEcology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics

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