How to format your references using the Ecological Monographs citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Ecological Monographs. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Sohn, E. 2015. Israel: Research without prejudice. Nature 525:S12-3.
A journal article with 2 authors
Mukhopadhyay, D., and H. Riezman. 2007. Proteasome-independent functions of ubiquitin in endocytosis and signaling. Science (New York, N.Y.) 315:201–205.
A journal article with 3 authors
Rajca, A., J. Wongsriratanakul, and S. Rajca. 2001. Magnetic ordering in an organic polymer. Science (New York, N.Y.) 294:1503–1505.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Krejci, L., S. Van Komen, Y. Li, J. Villemain, M. S. Reddy, H. Klein, T. Ellenberger, and P. Sung. 2003. DNA helicase Srs2 disrupts the Rad51 presynaptic filament. Nature 423:305–309.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Rushton, A. 2011. VHDL for Logic Synthesis. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Wong, P. C., and W. C. Miller-Hance, editors. 2014. Transesophageal Echocardiography for Congenital Heart Disease. Springer, London.
A chapter in an edited book
Thomson, R. R., N. D. Psaila, H. T. Bookey, D. T. Reid, and A. K. Kar. 2012. Controlling the Cross-section of Ultrafast Laser Inscribed Optical Waveguides. Pages 93–125 in R. Osellame, G. Cerullo, and R. Ramponi, editors. Femtosecond Laser Micromachining: Photonic and Microfluidic Devices in Transparent Materials. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Ecological Monographs.

Blog post
Andrew, E. 2014, May 9. Nanoparticles Give Tumors One-Two Punch By Timing Drug Delivery. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1991. Computer Security: Hackers Penetrate DOD Computer Systems. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Viramontes, M. 2009. Parenting styles and practices and their impact on school behavior. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Koblin, J. 2017, March 1. Trump’s Address Attracts 48 Million Viewers. New York Times:B2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Sohn 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Mukhopadhyay and Riezman 2007, Sohn 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Mukhopadhyay and Riezman 2007)
  • Three or more authors: (Krejci et al. 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleEcological Monographs
AbbreviationEcol. Monogr.
ISSN (print)0012-9615
ISSN (online)1557-7015
ScopeEcology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics

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