How to format your references using the Ecological Monographs citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Ecological Monographs. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Burgess, D. 2007. Taking on that first faculty job. Nature 447:1142.
A journal article with 2 authors
Liu, L., and D. R. Stegman. 2012. Origin of Columbia River flood basalt controlled by propagating rupture of the Farallon slab. Nature 482:386–389.
A journal article with 3 authors
Zobel, M., R. B. Neder, and S. A. J. Kimber. 2015. Universal solvent restructuring induced by colloidal nanoparticles. Science (New York, N.Y.) 347:292–294.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Kakazu, E., Y. Kondo, T. Kogure, M. Ninomiya, O. Kimura, Y. Ueno, and T. Shimosegawa. 2013. Plasma amino acids imbalance in cirrhotic patients disturbs the tricarboxylic acid cycle of dendritic cell. Scientific reports 3:3459.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Adhikari, S. 2013. Structural Dynamic Analysis with Generalized Damping Models. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, USA.
An edited book
Spanagel, R., and K. F. Mann, editors. 2005. Drugs for Relapse Prevention of Alcoholism. Birkhäuser, Basel.
A chapter in an edited book
Tu, E. J.-C., and J. Wang. 2014. Patterns and Changes in Household Structure in Hong Kong. Pages 59–77 in D. L. Poston Jr., W. S. Yang, and D. N. Farris, editors. The Family and Social Change in Chinese Societies. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Ecological Monographs.

Blog post
O`Callaghan, J. 2015, August 21. Mars One Torn To Shreds In MIT Debate. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1988. Solid Rocket Motors: Loss of Oxidizer Production Necessitates Emergency Allocation Procedures. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Zoino, J. J. 2017. Field Methods, Sampling Strategies, Historical Documents, and Data Redundancy: A Study of Historic Tenant Farmsteads in Leflore County, Mississippi. Doctoral dissertation, Mississippi State University, Mississippi State, MS.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Walsh, M. W. 2011, November 17. Audit Finds Errors in Calculating Pensions in Bankruptcies. New York Times:B2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Burgess 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Burgess 2007, Liu and Stegman 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Liu and Stegman 2012)
  • Three or more authors: (Kakazu et al. 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleEcological Monographs
AbbreviationEcol. Monogr.
ISSN (print)0012-9615
ISSN (online)1557-7015
ScopeEcology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics

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