How to format your references using the Artificial Intelligence and Law citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Artificial Intelligence and Law. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kaplan AE (2004) The long and the short of it. Nature 431:633
A journal article with 2 authors
Allen D, Westerblad H (2004) Physiology. Lactic acid--the latest performance-enhancing drug. Science 305:1112–1113
A journal article with 3 authors
Coussens LM, Fingleton B, Matrisian LM (2002) Matrix metalloproteinase inhibitors and cancer: trials and tribulations. Science 295:2387–2392
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Anderson GG, Palermo JJ, Schilling JD, et al (2003) Intracellular bacterial biofilm-like pods in urinary tract infections. Science 301:105–107

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Nasr VG, DiNardo JA (2017) The Pediatric Cardiac Anesthesia Handbook. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK
An edited book
Lendeckel U, Hooper NM (eds) (2009) Viral Proteases and Antiviral Protease Inhibitor Therapy: Proteases in Biology and Disease. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht
A chapter in an edited book
Li D, Terlaky T (2013) The Duality Between the Perceptron Algorithm and the von Neumann Algorithm. In: Zuluaga LF, Terlaky T (eds) Modeling and Optimization: Theory and Applications: Selected Contributions from the MOPTA 2012 Conference. Springer, New York, NY, pp 113–136

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Artificial Intelligence and Law.

Blog post
Davis J (2015) Sex Differences In Chimp Tool Use Switch Later In Life. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2003) Aviation Security: Efforts to Measure Effectiveness and Address Challenges. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Patil AV (2017) Programming QR code scanner, communicating Android devices, and unit testing in fortified cards. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Walsh MW (2012) Settlement Money Patched Nassau County Budget Gaps. New York Times B4

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Kaplan 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Allen and Westerblad 2004; Kaplan 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Allen and Westerblad 2004)
  • Three or more authors: (Anderson et al. 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleArtificial Intelligence and Law
AbbreviationArtif. Intell. Law
ISSN (print)0924-8463
ISSN (online)1572-8382
ScopeArtificial Intelligence

Other styles