How to format your references using the Artificial Intelligence and Law citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Artificial Intelligence and Law. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Brooke M (2014) In retrospect: The Courtship Habits of the Great Crested Grebe. Nature 513:484–485
A journal article with 2 authors
Stebbins CE, Galán JE (2001) Structural mimicry in bacterial virulence. Nature 412:701–705
A journal article with 3 authors
Homer H, Gui L, Carroll J (2009) A spindle assembly checkpoint protein functions in prophase I arrest and prometaphase progression. Science 326:991–994
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Chen JS, Li L, Wang JY, et al (2004) Water resources: groundwater maintains dune landscape. Nature 432:459–460

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Stevens BA, Roediger E (2016) Breaking Negative Relationship Patterns. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK
An edited book
Rzoska SJ, Zhelezny VP (eds) (2005) Nonlinear Dielectric Phenomena in Complex Liquids. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht
A chapter in an edited book
Godoy G, Jacquemard F (2009) Unique Normalization for Shallow TRS. In: Treinen R (ed) Rewriting Techniques and Applications: 20th International Conference, RTA 2009 Brasília, Brazil, June 29 - July 1, 2009 Proceedings. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 63–77

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Artificial Intelligence and Law.

Blog post
O`Callaghan J (2015) New Horizons At Pluto: What Happens Next? In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1992) Student Financial Aid: Most Supplemental Educational Opportunity Grants Are Awarded to Needy Students. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Yuan J (2008) Membrane Protein Insertion in Bacteria by the YidC and Sec Pathway. Doctoral dissertation, Ohio State University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Walsh MW (2015) Puerto Rico Utility and Bondholders Agree to Keep Working on a Deal. New York Times B3

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Brooke 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Stebbins and Galán 2001; Brooke 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Stebbins and Galán 2001)
  • Three or more authors: (Chen et al. 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleArtificial Intelligence and Law
AbbreviationArtif. Intell. Law
ISSN (print)0924-8463
ISSN (online)1572-8382
ScopeArtificial Intelligence

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