How to format your references using the Artificial Intelligence and Law citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Artificial Intelligence and Law. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kemp M (2003) Science in culture. Nature 424:618
A journal article with 2 authors
Pawlowska TE, Taylor JW (2004) Organization of genetic variation in individuals of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Nature 427:733–737
A journal article with 3 authors
Bruins HJ, van der Plicht J, Mazar A (2003) 14C dates from Tel Rehov: Iron-Age chronology, pharaohs, and Hebrew kings. Science 300:315–318
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Okada Y, Scott G, Ray MK, et al (2007) Histone demethylase JHDM2A is critical for Tnp1 and Prm1 transcription and spermatogenesis. Nature 450:119–123

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Prud’Homme R (2013) Flows and Chemical Reactions in Homogeneous Mixtures. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ USA
An edited book
Natarajan S (2014) Boosted Statistical Relational Learners: From Benchmarks to Data-Driven Medicine. Springer International Publishing, Cham
A chapter in an edited book
Marková H, Kopecký M, Suchánek R (2016) The Process of Budgeting and Issues of Indebtedness in the Czech Republic. In: Morrison FL (ed) Fiscal Rules - Limits on Governmental Deficits and Debt. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp 85–100

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Artificial Intelligence and Law.

Blog post
Andrew E (2015) Rumbling From Ocean Trenches Could Be Sign That Japan Faces Mega Earthquake. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1987) FAA Staffing: FAA’s Definition of Its Controller Work Force Should Be Revised. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Spillman SA (2014) Is More Always Better: Comparing the Effects of Single and Multiple Learning Channels on Academic Performance. Doctoral dissertation, University of South Florida

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Coe A (2017) Presidential Biographies. New York Times MM18

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Kemp 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Kemp 2003; Pawlowska and Taylor 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Pawlowska and Taylor 2004)
  • Three or more authors: (Okada et al. 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleArtificial Intelligence and Law
AbbreviationArtif. Intell. Law
ISSN (print)0924-8463
ISSN (online)1572-8382
ScopeArtificial Intelligence

Other styles