How to format your references using the Artificial Intelligence and Law citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Artificial Intelligence and Law. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Donnelly CA (2000) Likely size of the French BSE epidemic. Nature 408:787–788
A journal article with 2 authors
Tamaru H, Selker EU (2001) A histone H3 methyltransferase controls DNA methylation in Neurospora crassa. Nature 414:277–283
A journal article with 3 authors
Vinothkumar KR, Zhu J, Hirst J (2014) Architecture of mammalian respiratory complex I. Nature 515:80–84
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Yao J, Liu Z, Liu Y, et al (2008) Optical negative refraction in bulk metamaterials of nanowires. Science 321:930

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Rodda HJE, Little MA (2015) Understanding Mathematical and Statistical Techniques in Hydrology. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK
An edited book
Yong C (2011) The Wenchuan Earthquake of 2008: Anatomy of a Disaster. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Smith D, Friesen J (2012) Interacting with Device Hardware and Media. In: Friesen J (ed) Android Recipes: A Problem-Solution Approach. Apress, Berkeley, CA, pp 421–499

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Artificial Intelligence and Law.

Blog post
Davis J (2017) Even Elephants In Remote Rainforests Are Being Slaughtered. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2009) English Language Learning: Diverse Federal and State Efforts to Support Adult English Language Learning Could Benefit from More Coordination. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Bustillo MF (2010) Heart and Art: Post-adoption program: A grant proposal. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Crow K (2002) A Bar (Yes, a Bar) Helps Revive a Neighborhood. New York Times 146

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Donnelly 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Donnelly 2000; Tamaru and Selker 2001).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Tamaru and Selker 2001)
  • Three or more authors: (Yao et al. 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleArtificial Intelligence and Law
AbbreviationArtif. Intell. Law
ISSN (print)0924-8463
ISSN (online)1572-8382
ScopeArtificial Intelligence

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