How to format your references using the Metallography, Microstructure, and Analysis citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Metallography, Microstructure, and Analysis. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. C. Schlotterer, Science 299, 670 (2003).
A journal article with 2 authors
1. C. Rascón and A. O. Parry, Nature 407, 986 (2000).
A journal article with 3 authors
1. S. Z. Tasker, E. A. Standley, and T. F. Jamison, Nature 509, 299 (2014).
A journal article with 4 or more authors
1. W. Little, A. Karatutlu, D. Bolmatov, K. Trachenko, A. V. Sapelkin, G. Cibin, R. Taylor, F. Mosselmans, A. J. Dent, and G. Mountjoy, Sci. Rep. 4, 7372 (2014).

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. R. Levin, Implementing the Wealth Management Index (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2011).
An edited book
1. D. M. Whitacre, editor , Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology Volume 232 (Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2014).
A chapter in an edited book
1. C. Kyriazopoulou, in Smart Cities, Green Technologies, and Intelligent Transport Systems: 4th International Conference, SMARTGREENS 2015, and 1st International Conference VEHITS 2015, Lisbon, Portugal, May 20-22, 2015, Revised Selected Papers, edited by M. Helfert, K.-H. Krempels, C. Klein, B. Donellan, and O. Guiskhin (Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2015), pp. 75–103.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Metallography, Microstructure, and Analysis.

Blog post
1. D. Andrew, IFLScience (2017).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office, Information Technology: Investment Oversight and Management Have Improved but Continued Attention Is Needed (U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2011).

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. E. Rollo, Effect of the Stoplight Diet and Mode of Intervention on Triglyceride Production in a Veteran Population, Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. L. Qiu, New York Times A15 (2017).

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleMetallography, Microstructure, and Analysis
ISSN (print)2192-9262
ISSN (online)2192-9270
ScopeMetals and Alloys

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