How to format your references using the Metallography, Microstructure, and Analysis citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Metallography, Microstructure, and Analysis. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. R. Mackinnon, Science 306, 1304 (2004).
A journal article with 2 authors
1. K. Salehi-Ashtiani and J. W. Szostak, Nature 414, 82 (2001).
A journal article with 3 authors
1. N. M. Ferguson, C. A. Donnelly, and R. M. Anderson, Science 292, 1155 (2001).
A journal article with 4 or more authors
1. A. N. Krot, K. D. McKeegan, L. A. Leshin, G. J. MacPherson, and E. R. D. Scott, Science 295, 1051 (2002).

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. G. Dewulf, A. Blanken, and M. Bult-Spiering, Strategic Issues in Public-Private Partnerships (John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK, 2012).
An edited book
1. W. Zhao and G. Prenat, editors , Spintronics-Based Computing (Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2015).
A chapter in an edited book
1. G. Skorupa, in Transactions on Computational Collective Intelligence XIV, edited by N. T. Nguyen (Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2014), pp. 100–119.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Metallography, Microstructure, and Analysis.

Blog post
1. E. Andrew, IFLScience (2016).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office, Transportation Issue Area Plan--Fiscal Years 1998-2000 (U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1997).

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. T. L. Bryant, The Influence of High School Preparation on Black Male Students’ Ability to Succeed at the Post-Secondary Level, Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. B. Detrick, New York Times D6 (2017).

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleMetallography, Microstructure, and Analysis
ISSN (print)2192-9262
ISSN (online)2192-9270
ScopeMetals and Alloys

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