How to format your references using the Expert Review of Vaccines citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Expert Review of Vaccines. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Fabian AC. Astronomy. Variable high-energy gamma rays from the elliptical galaxy M87. Science. 2006;314:1398–1399.
A journal article with 2 authors
Csabai I, Szathmáry E. Comment on “A bacterium that can grow by using arsenic instead of phosphorus.” Science. 2011;332:1149; author reply 1149.
A journal article with 3 authors
Rougier GW, Forasiepi AM, Martinelli AG. Comment on “Independent origins of middle ear bones in monotremes and therians” (II). Science. 2005;309:1492; author reply 1492.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Kohler E, Keysers C, Umiltà MA, et al. Hearing sounds, understanding actions: action representation in mirror neurons. Science. 2002;297:846–848.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Wei J. Great Inventions that Changed the World. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2012.
An edited book
Scheerens J, editor. Informal Learning of Active Citizenship at School: An International Comparative Study in Seven European Countries. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2009.
A chapter in an edited book
Leung CB, Wang Y. Influences of the Cultural Revolution on Chinese Literacy Instruction. In: Leung CB, Ruan J, editors. Perspectives on Teaching and Learning Chinese Literacy in China. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2012. p. 49–60.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Expert Review of Vaccines.

Blog post
Hale T. Scientists Explain Exactly What’s Happening To Your Brain And Body Right Before You Die [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Highlights of a Forum: Data and Analytics Innovation: Emerging Opportunities and Challenges. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2016. Report No.: GAO-16-659SP. .

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Waidelich LA. Identifying Leadership Potential: The Process of Principals within a Charter School Network [Doctoral dissertation]. [Washington, DC]: George Washington University; 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
de la MERCED MJ, Fandos N. Broadcaster Sets a Collision Course With Fox. New York Times. 2017 May 3;A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleExpert Review of Vaccines
AbbreviationExpert Rev. Vaccines
ISSN (print)1476-0584
ISSN (online)1744-8395
ScopeMolecular Medicine
Drug Discovery

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