How to format your references using the Expert Review of Vaccines citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Expert Review of Vaccines. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Harry EJ. Microbiology: A beacon for bacterial tubulin. Nature. 2014;516:175–176.
A journal article with 2 authors
Smith MP, Harper DAT. Earth science. Causes of the Cambrian explosion. Science. 2013;341:1355–1356.
A journal article with 3 authors
Duivenvoorden JF, Svenning JC, Wright SJ. Ecology. Beta diversity in tropical forests. Science. 2002;295:636–637.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Rohrbach A, Ballhaus C, Golla-Schindler U, et al. Metal saturation in the upper mantle. Nature. 2007;449:456–458.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Edwards DW. Risk Management in Trading. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2014.
An edited book
Nixon RA, Yuan A, editors. Cytoskeleton of the Nervous System. New York, NY: Springer; 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
Lai Y, Zheng Y, Cao J. Protocols for Traffic Safety Using Wireless Sensor Network. In: Jin H, Rana OF, Pan Y, et al., editors. Algorithms and Architectures for Parallel Processing: 7th International Conference, ICA3PP 2007, Hangzhou, China, June 11-14, 2007 Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2007. p. 37–48.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Expert Review of Vaccines.

Blog post
Andrew E. Wasps Turn Spiders Into Their Zombie Bodyguards, Then Kill Them. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Staffing Implications of Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System and Remote Sensing Activities. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1980. Report No.: PSAD-80-47. .

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Maddox AL. Secondary Structure Analysis of the C-Terminus of Gα-Interacting Vesicle Associated Protein Using Circular Dichroism Spectroscopy [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Nir SM. The High Price of Pretty Nails. New York Times. 2015 May 7;A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleExpert Review of Vaccines
AbbreviationExpert Rev. Vaccines
ISSN (print)1476-0584
ISSN (online)1744-8395
ScopeMolecular Medicine
Drug Discovery

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