How to format your references using the Metacognition and Learning citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Metacognition and Learning. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Boylan-Kolchin, M. (2014). Cosmology: A virtual Universe. Nature, 509(7499), 170–171.
A journal article with 2 authors
Koelle, K., & Rasmussen, D. A. (2014). Influenza: Prediction is worth a shot. Nature, 507(7490), 47–48.
A journal article with 3 authors
Latimer, A. M., Silander, J. A., Jr, & Cowling, R. M. (2005). Neutral ecological theory reveals isolation and rapid speciation in a biodiversity hot spot. Science (New York, N.Y.), 309(5741), 1722–1725.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Kawakatsu, H., Kumar, P., Takei, Y., Shinohara, M., Kanazawa, T., Araki, E., & Suyehiro, K. (2009). Seismic evidence for sharp lithosphere-asthenosphere boundaries of oceanic plates. Science (New York, N.Y.), 324(5926), 499–502.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Anderson, J. B., & Johannesson, R. (2005). Understanding Information Transmission. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Sandnes, F. E., Zhang, Y., Rong, C., Yang, L. T., & Ma, J. (Eds.). (2008). Ubiquitous Intelligence and Computing: 5th International Conference, UIC 2008, Oslo, Norway, June 23-25, 2008 Proceedings (Vol. 5061). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Shen, J., Jiang, S., & Liu, O. L. (2015). Reconceptualizing a College Science Learning Experience in the New Digital Era: A Review of Literature. In X. Ge, D. Ifenthaler, & J. M. Spector (Eds.), Emerging Technologies for STEAM Education: Full STEAM Ahead (pp. 61–79). Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Metacognition and Learning.

Blog post
O`Callaghan, J. (2017, May 25). We Just Learned A Lot Of Unexpected Things About Jupiter. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1978). Third Party Funding Agreements: No Longer Appropriate for Serving the Handicapped Through the Vocational Rehabilitation Program (No. HRD-78-7). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Stroud, M. (2012). Solar desalination in the southwest United States: A thermoeconomic analysis utilizing the sun to desalt water in high irradiance regions (Doctoral dissertation). University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Specht, M. H. (2015, August 16). Cut and Color. New York Times, p. BR14.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Boylan-Kolchin 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Boylan-Kolchin 2014; Koelle and Rasmussen 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Koelle and Rasmussen 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Kawakatsu et al. 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleMetacognition and Learning
AbbreviationMetacogn. Learn.
ISSN (print)1556-1623
ISSN (online)1556-1631

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