How to format your references using the Metacognition and Learning citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Metacognition and Learning. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hinnebusch, A. G. (2015). Cell biology. Blocking stress response for better memory? Science (New York, N.Y.), 348(6238), 967–968.
A journal article with 2 authors
Vajda, V., & McLoughlin, S. (2004). Fungal proliferation at the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary. Science (New York, N.Y.), 303(5663), 1489.
A journal article with 3 authors
Thorne, S. H., Negrin, R. S., & Contag, C. H. (2006). Synergistic antitumor effects of immune cell-viral biotherapy. Science (New York, N.Y.), 311(5768), 1780–1784.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Enquist, B. J., Economo, E. P., Huxman, T. E., Allen, A. P., Ignace, D. D., & Gillooly, J. F. (2003). Scaling metabolism from organisms to ecosystems. Nature, 423(6940), 639–642.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Larose, D. T. (2005). Data Mining Methods and Models. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Dworkin, M., Falkow, S., Rosenberg, E., Schleifer, K.-H., & Stackebrandt, E. (Eds.). (2006). The Prokaryotes: Volume 7: Proteobacteria: Delta, Epsilon Subclass. New York, NY: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Servetti, A., Masala, E., Bucciol, P., & De Martin, J. C. (2007). Variable Time-Scale Multimedia Streaming Over 802.11 Inter-Vehicle Ad-hoc Networks. In H. Abut, J. H. L. Hansen, & K. Takeda (Eds.), Advances for In-Vehicle and Mobile Systems: Challenges for International Standards (pp. 47–57). Boston, MA: Springer US.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Metacognition and Learning.

Blog post
Luntz, S. (2015, July 13). Mountains Drive Evolution. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1975). Technology Transfer and Innovation Can Help Cities Identify Problems and Solutions (No. PSAD-75-110). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Patrick, N. S. (2010). Employees’ Perceptions of Employers’ Response After Workplace Injury (Doctoral dissertation). Florida Atlantic University, Boca Raton, FL.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Stewart, J. B. (2017, April 13). Social Investing Entices Converts. New York Times, p. B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Hinnebusch 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Hinnebusch 2015; Vajda and McLoughlin 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Vajda and McLoughlin 2004)
  • Three or more authors: (Enquist et al. 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleMetacognition and Learning
AbbreviationMetacogn. Learn.
ISSN (print)1556-1623
ISSN (online)1556-1631

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