How to format your references using the Metacognition and Learning citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Metacognition and Learning. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Omelon, S. (2004). Graduate journal: from biochemist to engineer. Nature, 427(6970), 180.
A journal article with 2 authors
Reichhardt, C. J. O., & Lopatina, L. M. (2009). Materials science. A ball-and-chain polymer model. Science (New York, N.Y.), 326(5951), 374–375.
A journal article with 3 authors
Hill, M. S., Hitchcock, P. B., & Pongtavornpinyo, R. (2006). A linear homocatenated compound containing six indium centers. Science (New York, N.Y.), 311(5769), 1904–1907.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Zanazzi, A., Kohn, M. J., MacFadden, B. J., & Terry, D. O. (2007). Large temperature drop across the Eocene-Oligocene transition in central North America. Nature, 445(7128), 639–642.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Ben-Daya, M., Kumar, U., & Murthy, D. N. P. (2016). Introduction to Maintenance Engineering. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Salinelli, E. (2009). Modelli Dinamici Discreti. (F. Tomarelli, Ed.) (2a edizione.). Milano: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Sundquist, H. (2010). Risks and Safety in Building Structures. In G. Grimvall, Å. J. Holmgren, P. Jacobsson, & T. Thedéen (Eds.), Risks in Technological Systems (pp. 47–68). London: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Metacognition and Learning.

Blog post
Carpineti, A. (2016, August 1). This Superluminous Supernova Looks Like It Exploded Twice. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1997). National Airspace System: Issues in Allocating Costs for Air Traffic Services to DOD and Other Users (No. RCED-97-106). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Blackmar, M. D. (2012). Wagner domesticated, Wagner democratized: The parlor reception of Musikdrama (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly, S. (2000, October 19). Op-art; Sub-liminal. New York Times, p. A33.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Omelon 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Omelon 2004; Reichhardt and Lopatina 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Reichhardt and Lopatina 2009)
  • Three or more authors: (Zanazzi et al. 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleMetacognition and Learning
AbbreviationMetacogn. Learn.
ISSN (print)1556-1623
ISSN (online)1556-1631

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