How to format your references using the Meta Gene citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Meta Gene. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Bogg, J., 2007. Dr. Jekyll and Ms Hide. Nature 447, 114.
A journal article with 2 authors
Ellison, C.E., Bachtrog, D., 2013. Dosage compensation via transposable element mediated rewiring of a regulatory network. Science 342, 846–850.
A journal article with 3 authors
Takeuchi, N., Yamanashi, Y., Yoshikawa, N., 2014. Reversible logic gate using adiabatic superconducting devices. Sci. Rep. 4, 6354.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Yang-Hartwich, Y., Gurrea-Soteras, M., Sumi, N., Joo, W.D., Holmberg, J.C., Craveiro, V., Alvero, A.B., Mor, G., 2014. Ovulation and extra-ovarian origin of ovarian cancer. Sci. Rep. 4, 6116.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Wagner-Martin, L., 2012. A History of American Literature. Blackwell Publishing Ltd, Oxford.
An edited book
Tamaki, N., Kuge, Y. (Eds.), 2010. Molecular Imaging for Integrated Medical Therapy and Drug Development. Springer Japan, Tokyo.
A chapter in an edited book
Ncube, M., Gumata, N., Ndou, E., 2016. The Spillovers of Financial Shocks from the United States into the South African Economy, in: Gumata, N., Ndou, E. (Eds.), Global Growth and Financial Spillovers and the South African Macro-Economy. Palgrave Macmillan UK, London, pp. 51–66.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Meta Gene.

Blog post
Carpineti, A., 2017. Exoplanet As Dense As Styrofoam Might Teach Us A Lot About Planetary Atmospheres [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1989. Guaranteed Student Loans: Analysis of Student Default Rates at 7,800 Postsecondary Schools (No. HRD-89-63BR). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ugwu, R.I., 2012. Perceptions of elementary teachers from an urban school district in Southern California regarding their inquiry-based science instructional practices, assessment methods, and professional development (Doctoral dissertation). Pepperdine University, Malibu, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Maheshwari, S., Herrman, J., 2016. Publishers Are Rethinking Those ‘Around the Web’ Ads. New York Times B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Bogg, 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Bogg, 2007; Ellison and Bachtrog, 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Ellison and Bachtrog, 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (Yang-Hartwich et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleMeta Gene
AbbreviationMeta Gene
ISSN (print)2214-5400

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