How to format your references using the Meta Gene citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Meta Gene. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Thomas, P.J., 2011. Cell signaling. Every bit counts. Science 334, 321–322.
A journal article with 2 authors
Kubatko, L.S., Pearl, D.K., 2011. Evolution. Seeing the trees in your terrace. Science 333, 411–412.
A journal article with 3 authors
Hoffman, B.D., Grashoff, C., Schwartz, M.A., 2011. Dynamic molecular processes mediate cellular mechanotransduction. Nature 475, 316–323.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Karlsson, M., Rebmann, B., Lienemann, P.S., Sprossmann, N., Ehrbar, M., Radziwill, G., Weber, W., 2013. Pharmacologically controlled protein switch for ON-OFF regulation of growth factor activity. Sci. Rep. 3, 2716.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Ribéreau-Gayon, P., Dubourdieu, D., Donèche, B., Lonvaud, A., 2006. Handbook of Enology. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Gleich, D.F., Komjáthy, J., Litvak, N. (Eds.), 2015. Algorithms and Models for the Web Graph: 12th International Workshop, WAW 2015, Eindhoven, The Netherlands, December 10-11, 2015, Proceedings, 1st ed. 2015. ed, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer International Publishing, Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
Maiorana, E., Argones Rúa, E., Alba Castro, J.L., Campisi, P., 2011. Eigen-Model Projections for Protected On-line Signature Recognition, in: Vielhauer, C., Dittmann, J., Drygajlo, A., Juul, N.C., Fairhurst, M.C. (Eds.), Biometrics and ID Management: COST 2101 European Workshop, BioID 2011, Brandenburg (Havel), Germany, March 8-10, 2011. Proceedings, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 49–60.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Meta Gene.

Blog post
Fang, J., 2014. Did Humans Coexist with Saber Cats? [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1978. Information on Organization and Functions of the Indian Education Resources Center (No. CED-78-57). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Paulone, S., 2013. Mergers and Acquisitions: Examining Managerial Strategy Connection to Post Transaction Accounting Measures (Doctoral dissertation). Northcentral University, Scottsdale, AZ.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Walsh, M.W., 2014. Detroit’s Plan to Profit on Its Water, by Selling to Its Neighbors, Looks Half Empty. New York Times A11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Thomas, 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Kubatko and Pearl, 2011; Thomas, 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Kubatko and Pearl, 2011)
  • Three or more authors: (Karlsson et al., 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleMeta Gene
AbbreviationMeta Gene
ISSN (print)2214-5400

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