How to format your references using the Joint Bone Spine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Joint Bone Spine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Baker M. Cellular imaging: Taking a long, hard look. Nature 2010;466:1137–40.
A journal article with 2 authors
Rash BG, Rakic P. Neuroscience. Genetic resolutions of brain convolutions. Science 2014;343:744–5.
A journal article with 3 authors
Aravind L, Dixit VM, Koonin EV. Apoptotic molecular machinery: vastly increased complexity in vertebrates revealed by genome comparisons. Science 2001;291:1279–84.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Guduru R, Liang P, Runowicz C, Nair M, Atluri V, Khizroev S. Magneto-electric nanoparticles to enable field-controlled high-specificity drug delivery to eradicate ovarian cancer cells. Sci Rep 2013;3:2953.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Sturges RH Jr. Practical Field Robotics. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2014.
An edited book
Naglieri J, Goldstein S, editors. Assessing Impairment: From Theory to Practice. Boston, MA: Springer US; 2009.
A chapter in an edited book
de Vries MFRK, Korotov K. Transformational Executive Programs: An Owner’s Manual. In: Vries MFRK de, Korotov K, Florent-Treacy E, Rook C, editors. Coach and Couch: The Psychology of Making Better Leaders, London: Palgrave Macmillan UK; 2016, p. 67–85.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Joint Bone Spine.

Blog post
Carpineti A. Daphnis Making Waves In Saturn’s Rings. IFLScience 2017.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. JFMIP News: A Newsletter for Government Financial Managers, Fall 1997, Vol. 9, No. 3. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1997.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Satterlee RT. A case study of undergraduate student employment at a private university: Exploring the effects of social class and institutional context. Doctoral dissertation. University of Maryland, College Park, 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
(nyt) SK. World Briefing | Europe: Estonia: Vodka Pipeline. New York Times 2004:A6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJoint Bone Spine
AbbreviationJoint Bone Spine
ISSN (print)1297-319X

Other styles