How to format your references using the Joint Bone Spine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Joint Bone Spine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Nisbet E. Earth monitoring: Cinderella science. Nature 2007;450:789–90.
A journal article with 2 authors
Largeron M, Fleury M-B. Chemistry. Bioinspired oxidation catalysts. Science 2013;339:43–4.
A journal article with 3 authors
Krishnan M, Ugaz VM, Burns MA. PCR in a Rayleigh-Bénard convection cell. Science 2002;298:793.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Stecyk JAW, Stensløkken K-O, Farrell AP, Nilsson GE. Maintained cardiac pumping in anoxic crucian carp. Science 2004;306:77.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Yamaguchi R, Fujita K-I. Ligand Platforms in Homogenous Catalytic Reactions with Metals. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc; 2014.
An edited book
Czernicki Z, Baethmann A, Ito U, Katayama Y, Kuroiwa T, Mendelow D, editors. Brain Edema XIV. vol. 106. Vienna: Springer; 2010.
A chapter in an edited book
Condoleo P. The Mỹ Sơn Temples in Vietnam: Construction Techniques and Structural Issues. In: Dan MB, Přikryl R, Török Á, editors. Materials, Technologies and Practice in Historic Heritage Structures, Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2010, p. 49–68.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Joint Bone Spine.

Blog post
Andrew E. Time Lapse Shows Stunning Skies in America’s Heartland. IFLScience 2014.’s-heartland/ (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. National Materials Research and Development Capability. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1978.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Gomes MA. Cognitive science approaches to actor training: Interrogating conceptual language. Doctoral dissertation. California State University, Long Beach, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Gorman J. In Defense of the Donkey. New York Times 2016:D1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJoint Bone Spine
AbbreviationJoint Bone Spine
ISSN (print)1297-319X

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