How to format your references using the Joint Bone Spine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Joint Bone Spine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
[1]
Robbins M. Policy: Fuelling politics. Nature 2011;474:S22-4.
A journal article with 2 authors
[1]
Taipale J, Beachy PA. The Hedgehog and Wnt signalling pathways in cancer. Nature 2001;411:349–54.
A journal article with 3 authors
[1]
Depue BE, Curran T, Banich MT. Prefrontal regions orchestrate suppression of emotional memories via a two-phase process. Science 2007;317:215–9.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
[1]
Nishiguchi KM, Sandberg MA, Kooijman AC, Martemyanov KA, Pott JWR, Hagstrom SA, et al. Defects in RGS9 or its anchor protein R9AP in patients with slow photoreceptor deactivation. Nature 2004;427:75–8.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
[1]
Nguyen TH. Leaders and Innovators. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2016.
An edited book
[1]
Bruggeman M. Pro SharePoint 2007 Development Techniques. Berkeley, CA: Apress; 2007.
A chapter in an edited book
[1]
Higashi N. Far-Ultraviolet Spectroscopy and Deep-Ultraviolet Spectroscopy: Industrial Applications. In: Ozaki Y, Kawata S, editors. Far- and Deep-Ultraviolet Spectroscopy, Tokyo: Springer Japan; 2015, p. 77–98.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Joint Bone Spine.

Blog post
[1]
Taub B. Gay Termites Kill Straight Males To Steal Their Wives. IFLScience 2016. https://www.iflscience.com/plants-and-animals/gay-termites-kill-straight-males-steal-wives/ (accessed October 30, 2018).

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
[1]
Government Accountability Office. IRS ADP Contracts. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1992.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
[1]
Grzeda S. Use of Binomial Cluster Analysis in the Identification of Temporary Disaster Debris Management Sites. Doctoral dissertation. George Washington University, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
[1]
Nossiter A, Gladstone R. Series of Shootings and Blasts, Apparently Coordinated. New York Times 2015:A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJoint Bone Spine
AbbreviationJoint Bone Spine
ISSN (print)1297-319X
ScopeRheumatology

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