How to format your references using the Joint Bone Spine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Joint Bone Spine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
[1]
Antonelli A. Biodiversity: Multiple origins of mountain life. Nature 2015;524:300–1.
A journal article with 2 authors
[1]
Benkovic SJ, Hammes-Schiffer S. A perspective on enzyme catalysis. Science 2003;301:1196–202.
A journal article with 3 authors
[1]
Aminetzach YT, Macpherson JM, Petrov DA. Pesticide resistance via transposition-mediated adaptive gene truncation in Drosophila. Science 2005;309:764–7.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
[1]
Li YB, Wan X, Cai BG, Cheng Q, Cui TJ. Frequency-controls of electromagnetic multi-beam scanning by metasurfaces. Sci Rep 2014;4:6921.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
[1]
Dimond B. Legal Aspects of Mental Capacity. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2016.
An edited book
[1]
Zhai M, editor. Precambrian Geology of China. 1st ed. 2015. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
[1]
Dinh T-C, Sibony N. Dynamics in Several Complex Variables: Endomorphisms of Projective Spaces and Polynomial-like Mappings. In: Bedford E, Brunella M, Dinh T-C, Schleicher D, Sibony N, Gentili G, et al., editors. Holomorphic Dynamical Systems: Cetraro, Italy, July 7-12, 2008, Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2010, p. 165–294.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Joint Bone Spine.

Blog post
[1]
Andrew D. Five Foods To Always Avoid At The Supermarket. IFLScience 2016.

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
[1]
Government Accountability Office. Department of Transportation: University Research Activities Need Greater Oversight. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1994.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
[1]
Rees CL. A systems-level investigation into the genetic determinants of childhood-onset schizophrenia. Doctoral dissertation. George Washington University, 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
[1]
St. John Kelly E. The Mysterious Tattoo Hoax. New York Times 1998:148.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJoint Bone Spine
AbbreviationJoint Bone Spine
ISSN (print)1297-319X
ScopeRheumatology

Other styles