How to format your references using the Memory citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Memory. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Smaglik, P. (2003). Capturing competencies. Nature, 421(6925), 871.
A journal article with 2 authors
Field, J., & Fullagar, R. (2001). Archaeology and Australian megafauna. Science (New York, N.Y.), 294(5540), 7.
A journal article with 3 authors
Laxon, S., Peacock, N., & Smith, D. (2003). High interannual variability of sea ice thickness in the Arctic region. Nature, 425(6961), 947–950.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Stassun, K. G., Mathieu, R. D., Cargile, P. A., Aarnio, A. N., Stempels, E., & Geller, A. (2008). Surprising dissimilarities in a newly formed pair of “identical twin” stars. Nature, 453(7198), 1079–1082.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Alexander, M., & Walkenbach, J. (2012). 101 Ready-to-Use Excel® Macros. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Inoue-Murayama, M., Kawamura, S., & Weiss, A. (Eds.). (2011). From Genes to Animal Behavior: Social Structures, Personalities, Communication by Color. Springer Japan.
A chapter in an edited book
Dovey, J., & Furrow, A. (2012). Using the Filesystem. In A. Furrow (Ed.), Beginning Objective-C (pp. 107–157). Apress.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Memory.

Blog post
Fang, J. (2016, June 21). Baby Frogs Hatch In A Hurry When Snakes Attack. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2014). Information Technology: SSA Needs to Address Limitations in Management Controls and Human Capital Planning to Support Modernization Efforts (GAO-14-308). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Hartl, S. D. (2012). The role of culture in managing diversity: How culturally based heuristics differ in minority and non-minority managerial decision making [Doctoral dissertation]. Capella University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Chapman, M. M., & Saulny, S. (2010, May 22). A Tragedy in Detroit, With a Reality TV Crew in Tow. New York Times, A8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Smaglik, 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Field & Fullagar, 2001; Smaglik, 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Field & Fullagar, 2001)
  • Three authors: (Laxon et al., 2003)
  • 6 or more authors: (Stassun et al., 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleMemory
ISSN (print)0965-8211
ISSN (online)1464-0686
ScopeArts and Humanities (miscellaneous)
General Psychology

Other styles