How to format your references using the Memory citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Memory. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Giles, J. (2001). Relaxed restrictions blamed for rise in foot and mouth. Nature, 413(6852), 98.
A journal article with 2 authors
Holmes, K. V., & Enjuanes, L. (2003). Virology. The SARS coronavirus: a postgenomic era. Science (New York, N.Y.), 300(5624), 1377–1378.
A journal article with 3 authors
Hollenstein, K., Frei, D. C., & Locher, K. P. (2007). Structure of an ABC transporter in complex with its binding protein. Nature, 446(7132), 213–216.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Tanabe, T., Kuwabara, T., Warashina, M., Tani, K., Taira, K., & Asano, S. (2000). Oncogene inactivation in a mouse model. Nature, 406(6795), 473–474.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Stavroudis, O. N. (2006). The Mathematics of Geometrical and Physical Optics. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
An edited book
Vermeulen, B. (2014). Debugging Systems-on-Chip: Communication-centric and Abstraction-based Techniques (K. Goossens, Ed.). Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Neumann, G., & Cairns, D. (2016). A Targeted Estimation of Distribution Algorithm Compared to Traditional Methods in Feature Selection. In K. Madani, A. Dourado, A. Rosa, J. Filipe, & J. Kacprzyk (Eds.), Computational Intelligence: Revised and Selected Papers of the International Joint Conference, IJCCI 2013, Vilamoura, Portugal, September 20-22, 2013 (pp. 83–103). Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Memory.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015, September 9). Chemical Messengers: How Hormones Help Us Sleep. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1997). DFAS Telecommunications: DFAS Has the Opportunity To Reduce Its Telecommunication Line Capacity (AIMD-97-100). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Karch, K. (2014). An investigation of perceptions about smart mobile phone usage as an instructional tool in a high school classroom [Doctoral dissertation]. Capella University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Crow, K. (2001, January 21). An Enigmatic Golden Trophy Evokes a Saloon’s Good Times. New York Times, 147.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Giles, 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Giles, 2001; Holmes & Enjuanes, 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Holmes & Enjuanes, 2003)
  • Three authors: (Hollenstein et al., 2007)
  • 6 or more authors: (Tanabe et al., 2000)

About the journal

Full journal titleMemory
ISSN (print)0965-8211
ISSN (online)1464-0686
ScopeArts and Humanities (miscellaneous)
General Psychology

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