How to format your references using the Memory citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Memory. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Goldston, D. (2009). Don’t cry politicization. Nature, 460(7251), 24.
A journal article with 2 authors
Murakami, M., & Kouyama, T. (2008). Crystal structure of squid rhodopsin. Nature, 453(7193), 363–367.
A journal article with 3 authors
Råberg, L., Sim, D., & Read, A. F. (2007). Disentangling genetic variation for resistance and tolerance to infectious diseases in animals. Science (New York, N.Y.), 318(5851), 812–814.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Hensel, K. O., Boland, V., Postberg, J., Zilbauer, M., Heuschkel, R., Vogel, S., … Jenke, A. C. (2014). Differential expression of mucosal trefoil factors and mucins in pediatric inflammatory bowel diseases. Scientific Reports, 4, 7343.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Rochange, C., Uhrig, S., & Sainrat, P. (2013). Time-Predictable Architectures. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Claes, L., & Muehlenkamp, J. J. (Eds.). (2014). Non-Suicidal Self-Injury in Eating Disorders: Advancements in Etiology and Treatment. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Daescu, O., Ju, W., & Luo, J. (2010). NP-Completeness of Spreading Colored Points. In W. Wu & O. Daescu (Eds.), Combinatorial Optimization and Applications: 4th International Conference, COCOA 2010, Kailua-Kona, HI, USA, December 18-20, 2010, Proceedings, Part I (pp. 41–50). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Memory.

Blog post
Davis, J. (2016, May 25). As India Experiences Record Heat, Where Is The Hottest Place On Earth? Retrieved October 30, 2018, from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1996). Army Aviation Testing: Need to Reassess Consolidation Plan (No. NSIAD-96-87). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Conner, P. A. (2009). The STAR Math test as a predictor of Arkansas BenchmarkTest scores (Doctoral dissertation). Lindenwood University, St. Charles, MO.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Johnson, M. (2013, March 29). A Brief Resurrection. New York Times, p. MM50.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Goldston, 2009).
This sentence cites two references (Goldston, 2009; Murakami & Kouyama, 2008).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Murakami & Kouyama, 2008)
  • Three authors: (Råberg, Sim, & Read, 2007)
  • 6 or more authors: (Hensel et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleMemory
ISSN (print)0965-8211
ISSN (online)1464-0686
ScopeArts and Humanities (miscellaneous)
General Psychology

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