How to format your references using the Memory citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Memory. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Tanner, K. E. (2012). Materials science. Small but extremely tough. Science (New York, N.Y.), 336(6086), 1237–1238.
A journal article with 2 authors
Hauert, C., & Doebeli, M. (2004). Spatial structure often inhibits the evolution of cooperation in the snowdrift game. Nature, 428(6983), 643–646.
A journal article with 3 authors
Westover, K. D., Bushnell, D. A., & Kornberg, R. D. (2004). Structural basis of transcription: separation of RNA from DNA by RNA polymerase II. Science (New York, N.Y.), 303(5660), 1014–1016.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Rosenthal, A., Yaxley, G. M., Green, D. H., Hermann, J., Kovács, I., & Spandler, C. (2014). Continuous eclogite melting and variable refertilisation in upwelling heterogeneous mantle. Scientific Reports, 4, 6099.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Rodgers, N. (2000). Learning to Reason. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Castoldi, F., Blonna, D., & Assom, M. (Eds.). (2015). Simple and Complex Fractures of the Humerus: A Guide to Assessment and Treatment. Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Beckers, D. (2014). Patterns of Facilitation. In D. Beckers & M. Buck (Eds.), PNF in Practice: An Illustrated Guide (pp. 63–68). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Memory.

Blog post
Carpineti, A. (2017, January 20). The Tech For NASA’s Dark Energy Observatory Moves To Test Phase. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2016). Vehicle Safety: Enhanced Project Management of New Information Technology Could Help Improve NHTSA’s Oversight of Safety Defects (GAO-16-312). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Chung, J. (2015). Quasi-one-dimensional modeling of an adiabatic-compression preheated Ludwieg tube [Doctoral dissertation]. University of Maryland, College Park.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Grippe, J. (2017, January 3). A Goal-Oriented Mother’s 2 Forbidden Words: ‘I Can’t.’ New York Times, A18.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Tanner, 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Hauert & Doebeli, 2004; Tanner, 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Hauert & Doebeli, 2004)
  • Three authors: (Westover et al., 2004)
  • 6 or more authors: (Rosenthal et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleMemory
ISSN (print)0965-8211
ISSN (online)1464-0686
ScopeArts and Humanities (miscellaneous)
General Psychology

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