How to format your references using the Medicines citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Medicines. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Boughman, J.W. Divergent sexual selection enhances reproductive isolation in sticklebacks. Nature 2001, 411, 944–948.
A journal article with 2 authors
Bier, E.; De Robertis, E.M. EMBRYO DEVELOPMENT. BMP gradients: A paradigm for morphogen-mediated developmental patterning. Science 2015, 348, aaa5838.
A journal article with 3 authors
Nowak, M.A.; Plotkin, J.B.; Jansen, V.A. The evolution of syntactic communication. Nature 2000, 404, 495–498.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Mumby, P.J.; Chisholm, J.R.; Clark, C.D.; Hedley, J.D.; Jaubert, J. Spectrographic imaging. A bird’s-eye view of the health of coral reefs. Nature 2001, 413, 36.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Cicek, V. Cathodic Protection; John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: Hoboken, NJ, 2013; ISBN 9781118737880.
An edited book
Security and Trust Management: 11th International Workshop, STM 2015, Vienna, Austria, September 21-22, 2015, Proceedings; Foresti, S., Ed.; Lecture Notes in Computer Science; Springer International Publishing: Cham, 2015; Vol. 9331; ISBN 9783319248578.
A chapter in an edited book
Streffer, C.; Gethmann, C.F.; Kamp, G.; Kröger, W.; Rehbinder, E.; Renn, O.; Röhlig, K.-J. Conclusions and recommendations. In Radioactive Waste: Technical and Normative Aspects of its Disposal; Gethmann, C.F., Kamp, G., Kröger, W., Rehbinder, E., Renn, O., Röhlig, K.-J., Eds.; Ethics of Science and Technology Assessment; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2012; pp. 87–107 ISBN 9783642229244.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Medicines.

Blog post
Fang, J. Eye-Catching Iridescence is an Anti-Predator Defense Available online: (accessed on Oct 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Job Corps: Better Targeted Career Training and Improved Preenrollment Information Could Enhance Female Residential Student Recruitment and Retention; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 2009;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Anisko, J.J. Selling Mexico’s vistas: A visual discourse analysis of promotional materials of Loreto Bay, Mexico. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach: Long Beach, CA, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Rothenberg, B. Williams and Kvitova Continue Remarkable Runs to a Showdown. New York Times 2017, D4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleMedicines
AbbreviationMedicines (Basel)
ISSN (online)2305-6320

Other styles