How to format your references using the Medicines citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Medicines. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Brandenburg, A. Cosmology. Magnetic mysteries. Science 2001, 292, 2440–2441.
A journal article with 2 authors
Matsuoka, T.; Shimizu, K. Direct observation of a pressure-induced metal-to-semiconductor transition in lithium. Nature 2009, 458, 186–189.
A journal article with 3 authors
McNamara, A.K.; van Keken, P.E.; Karato, S.-I. Development of anisotropic structure in the Earth’s lower mantle by solid-state convection. Nature 2002, 416, 310–314.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Dubrovinsky, L.; Annersten, H.; Dubrovinskaia, N.; Westman, F.; Harryson, H.; Fabrichnaya, O.; Carlson, S. Chemical interaction of Fe and Al(2)O3 as a source of heterogeneity at the Earth’s core-mantle boundary. Nature 2001, 412, 527–529.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Mariño, P.P. Optimization of Computer Networks - Modeling and Algorithms; John Wiley & Sons, Ltd: Chichester, UK, 2016; ISBN 9781119114840.
An edited book
Chest X-Ray in Clinical Practice; Joarde, R., Crundwell, N., Eds.; 1st ed.; Springer: London, 2009; ISBN 9781848820982.
A chapter in an edited book
Suzuki, Y.; Suzuki, R. Investigation of Massage by Using Tactile Score. In Tactile Score: A Knowledge Media for Tactile Sense; Suzuki, R., Ed.; SpringerBriefs in Applied Sciences and Technology; Springer Japan: Tokyo, 2014; pp. 27–29 ISBN 9784431545460.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Medicines.

Blog post
Taub, B. Tortoise Gets A Set Of Wheels After Injuring Legs Having Sex Available online: (accessed on Oct 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Federal Research: Observations on the Small Business Innovation Research Program; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1998;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Reser, G. Assessing the Relationship between Adult Attachment and Differentiation of Self to Coparental Divorce Adjustment. Doctoral dissertation, Northcentral University: Scottsdale, AZ, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Grazda, E.; Leland, J. Before the Gentry Moved In. New York Times 2017, MB8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleMedicines
AbbreviationMedicines (Basel)
ISSN (online)2305-6320

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