How to format your references using the Medicines citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Medicines. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kerr, R.A. SAVING KYOTO: Can the Kyoto Climate Treaty Be Saved From Itself? Science 2000, 290, 920–921.
A journal article with 2 authors
Gabel, H.W.; Greenberg, M.E. Genetics. The Maturing Brain Methylome. Science 2013, 341, 626–627.
A journal article with 3 authors
Knill, E.; Laflamme, R.; Milburn, G.J. A Scheme for Efficient Quantum Computation with Linear Optics. Nature 2001, 409, 46–52.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Thiebaut de Schotten, M.; Urbanski, M.; Duffau, H.; Volle, E.; Lévy, R.; Dubois, B.; Bartolomeo, P. Direct Evidence for a Parietal-Frontal Pathway Subserving Spatial Awareness in Humans. Science 2005, 309, 2226–2228.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Chan, N.H.; Wong, H.Y. Handbook of Financial Risk Management; John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: Hoboken, NJ, 2013; ISBN 9781118573570.
An edited book
Multimodal Corpora: From Models of Natural Interaction to Systems and Applications; Kipp, M., Martin, J.-C., Paggio, P., Heylen, D., Eds.; Lecture Notes in Computer Science; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2009; Vol. 5509; ISBN 9783642047923.
A chapter in an edited book
Williams, J.S.; Wong-Leung, J. Voids and Nanocavities in Silicon. In Materials Science with Ion Beams; Bernas, H., Ed.; Topics in Applied Physics; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2010; pp. 113–146 ISBN 9783540887881.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Medicines.

Blog post
Hale, T. NASA Don’t Know What This Hole On Mars Is (accessed on 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Space Research: Content and Coordination of Space Science and Technology Strategy Need to Be More Robust; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 2011;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Sammons, J.L. Perceived Benefits of and Barriers to Physical Exercise in People with Severe Mental Illness. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach: Long Beach, CA, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey, G. Chase Is Over, But Pressure Is Still On. New York Times 2010, B12.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleMedicines
AbbreviationMedicines (Basel)
ISSN (online)2305-6320

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