How to format your references using the Medicines citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Medicines. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
von Hillebrandt-Andrade, C. Geophysics. Minimizing Caribbean tsunami risk. Science 2013, 341, 966–968.
A journal article with 2 authors
Linkerhand, M.; Gros, C. Generating functionals for autonomous latching dynamics in attractor relict networks. Sci. Rep. 2013, 3, 2042.
A journal article with 3 authors
Kersten, S.; Desvergne, B.; Wahli, W. Roles of PPARs in health and disease. Nature 2000, 405, 421–424.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Hou, J.G.; Jinlong, Y.; Haiqian, W.; Qunxiang, L.; Changgan, Z.; Lanfeng, Y.; Bing, W.; Chen, D.M.; Qingshi, Z. Topology of two-dimensional C60 domains. Nature 2001, 409, 304–305.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Lalanne, C. Mechanical Shock; John Wiley & Sons, Ltd: Chichester, UK, 2014; ISBN 9781118931127.
An edited book
In-situ Studies with Photons, Neutrons and Electrons Scattering; Kannengiesser, T., Babu, S.S., Komizo, Y.-I., Ramirez, A.J., Eds.; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2010; ISBN 9783642147937.
A chapter in an edited book
Quaia, E. Identificazione delle metastasi epatiche. In Mezzi di contrasto in ecografia: Applicazioni addominali; Quaia, E., Ed.; Springer: Milano, 2007; pp. 63–74 ISBN 9788847006164.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Medicines.

Blog post
Fang, J. Why Parrots Have Unusually Large Brains Available online: (accessed on Oct 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Microwave Landing Systems: Additional Systems Should Not Be Procured Unless Benefits Proven; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1988;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Kelly, L.A. Nursing surveillance in the acute care setting: Latent variable development and analysis. Doctoral dissertation, University of Arizona: Tucson, AZ, 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Walsh, M.W. With Suit, Hedge Funds Seek to Freeze the Assets of a Top Puerto Rico Bank. New York Times 2016, B7.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleMedicines
AbbreviationMedicines (Basel)
ISSN (online)2305-6320

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