How to format your references using the Medicines citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Medicines. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
DeLong, E.F. Evolution. Microbial Evolution in the Wild. Science 2012, 336, 422–424.
A journal article with 2 authors
Grey, K.; Calver, C.R. Ediacaran Oxidation and Biotic Evolution. Nature 2007, 450, E17; discussion E18.
A journal article with 3 authors
Dubi, Y.; Meir, Y.; Avishai, Y. Nature of the Superconductor-Insulator Transition in Disordered Superconductors. Nature 2007, 449, 876–880.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Weidner, C.I.; Walenda, T.; Lin, Q.; Wölfler, M.M.; Denecke, B.; Costa, I.G.; Zenke, M.; Wagner, W. Hematopoietic Stem and Progenitor Cells Acquire Distinct DNA-Hypermethylation during in Vitro Culture. Sci. Rep. 2013, 3, 3372.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Schmidt, A.B. Financial Markets and Trading; John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: Hoboken, NJ, 2011; ISBN 9781118268094.
An edited book
The Science of Reconstructive Transplantation; Brandacher, G., Ed.; Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine; Springer: New York, NY, 2015; ISBN 9781493920709.
A chapter in an edited book
Schwarzwald, H.; Collins, E.M.; Gillespie, S.; Spinks-Franklin, A.I.A. Future Health Implications. In International Adoption and Clinical Practice; Collins, E.M., Gillespie, S., Spinks-Franklin, A.I.A., Eds.; SpringerBriefs in Public Health; Springer International Publishing: Cham, 2015; pp. 49–54 ISBN 9783319134901.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Medicines.

Blog post
Davis, J. Glacier National Park Will Soon Have No Glaciers (accessed on 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Department of Homeland Security: Actions Needed to Strengthen Management of Research and Development; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 2014;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ryan, B.A. Computer-Based Versus Paper-Pencil Modes of Administration United States Government End of Course Exams: Student Cumulative Grade Point Averages as Predictors of Success. Doctoral dissertation, Lindenwood University: St. Charles, MO, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Detrick, B. Paul’s Casablanca. New York Times 2016, D9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleMedicines
AbbreviationMedicines (Basel)
ISSN (online)2305-6320

Other styles