How to format your references using the Medicines citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Medicines. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Zschokke, S. Palaeontology: Spider-Web Silk from the Early Cretaceous. Nature 2003, 424, 636–637.
A journal article with 2 authors
Krieg, A.M.; Lipford, G.B. Immunology. The Toll of Cathepsin K Deficiency. Science 2008, 319, 576–577.
A journal article with 3 authors
Lykotrafitis, G.; Rosakis, A.J.; Ravichandran, G. Self-Healing Pulse-like Shear Ruptures in the Laboratory. Science 2006, 313, 1765–1768.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Yan, Y.; Liao, Z.-M.; Zhou, Y.-B.; Wu, H.-C.; Bie, Y.-Q.; Chen, J.-J.; Meng, J.; Wu, X.-S.; Yu, D.-P. Synthesis and Quantum Transport Properties of Bi₂Se₃ Topological Insulator Nanostructures. Sci. Rep. 2013, 3, 1264.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Guillaume, P. Music and Acoustics; John Wiley & Sons, Inc: Hoboken, NJ, 2006; ISBN 9780470612446.
An edited book
Nicola, F. Global Pseudo-Differential Calculus on Euclidean Spaces; Rodino, L., Ed.; Pseudo-Differential Operators, Theory and Applications; Birkhäuser: Basel, 2010; Vol. 4; ISBN 9783764385118.
A chapter in an edited book
Deen, M.; Heynen, E.J.E.; Schouten, B.; van der Helm, P.G.H.P.; Korebrits, A.M. Games [4Therapy] Project: Let’s talk! In Games for Health 2014: Proceedings of the 4th conference on gaming and playful interaction in healthcare; Schouten, B., Fedtke, S., Schijven, M., Vosmeer, M., Gekker, A., Eds.; Springer Fachmedien Wiesbaden: Wiesbaden, 2014; pp. 15–26 ISBN 9783658071400.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Medicines.

Blog post
Andrew, E. Early Humans Had To Become More Feminine Before They Could Dominate The Planet Available online: (accessed on 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Training and Education Programs for Civilian Employees in the Federal Government; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1973;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Parker, H.A. Virtual Mate Poaching: A Study of the Tactics Used to Poach a Potential Mate on Social Networking Sites. Doctoral dissertation, Capella University: Minneapolis, MN, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wagner, J. Mets Find Trip to Series Has Cost in Pitching Staff. New York Times 2016, B9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleMedicines
AbbreviationMedicines (Basel)
ISSN (online)2305-6320

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