How to format your references using the Medicines citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Medicines. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Cyranoski, D. Retracted Paper Rattles Korean Science. Nature 2009, 458, 561.
A journal article with 2 authors
Palfrey, J.; Zittrain, J. Information Science. Better Data for a Better Internet. Science 2011, 334, 1210–1211.
A journal article with 3 authors
Brookmeyer, R.; Johnson, E.; Bollinger, R. Public Health Vaccination Policies for Containing an Anthrax Outbreak. Nature 2004, 432, 901–904.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Perea, G.B.; Riekel, C.; Guinea, G.V.; Madurga, R.; Daza, R.; Burghammer, M.; Hayashi, C.; Elices, M.; Plaza, G.R.; Pérez-Rigueiro, J. Identification and Dynamics of Polyglycine II Nanocrystals in Argiope Trifasciata Flagelliform Silk. Sci. Rep. 2013, 3, 3061.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
The Chartered Institute of Building Code of Practice for Project Management for Construction and Development; Blackwell Publishing: Oxford, UK, 2008; ISBN 9780470773710.
An edited book
Sustainable Urban Environments: An Ecosystem Approach; van Bueren, E., van Bohemen, H., Itard, L., Visscher, H., Eds.; Springer Netherlands: Dordrecht, 2012; ISBN 9789400712935.
A chapter in an edited book
Deb, S.; Ray, M. Child Abuse and Neglect in India, Risk Factors, and Protective Measures. In Child Safety, Welfare and Well-being: Issues and Challenges; Deb, S., Ed.; Springer India: New Delhi, 2016; pp. 39–57 ISBN 9788132224242.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Medicines.

Blog post
Andrew, E. How Notorious HIV Is Being Hijacked To Tackle Cancer Available online: (accessed on 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Improving COBOL Application Can Recover Significant Computer Resources; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1982;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Bearden, A. Exploring the Congruency between Mission and Practice in a Pre-K-12, Midwestern, Christian School. Doctoral dissertation, Lindenwood University: St. Charles, MO, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Rothenberg, B. Bouchard Is Out, but Her Concussion Suit From the 2015 Open Goes On. New York Times 2016, B9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleMedicines
AbbreviationMedicines (Basel)
ISSN (online)2305-6320

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