How to format your references using the Geology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Geology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Eagleman, D.M., 2004, Neuroscience. The where and when of intention: Science (New York, N.Y.), v. 303, p. 1144–1146.
A journal article with 2 authors
Nordborg, M., and Weigel, D., 2008, Next-generation genetics in plants: Nature, v. 456, p. 720–723.
A journal article with 3 authors
Gonzales, E.B., Kawate, T., and Gouaux, E., 2009, Pore architecture and ion sites in acid-sensing ion channels and P2X receptors: Nature, v. 460, p. 599–604.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Takahashi, N., Kishimoto, T., Nemoto, T., Kadowaki, T., and Kasai, H., 2002, Fusion pore dynamics and insulin granule exocytosis in the pancreatic islet: Science (New York, N.Y.), v. 297, p. 1349–1352.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Guinebretière, R., 2010, X-ray Diffraction by Polycrystalline Materials: London, UK, ISTE.
An edited book
Bai, Y.L., Zheng, Q.S., and Wei, Y.G. (Eds.), 2007, IUTAM Symposium on Mechanical Behavior and Micro-Mechanics of Nanostructured Materials: Proceedings of the IUTAM Symposium held in Beijing, China, June 27–30, 2005: Dordrecht, Springer Netherlands, Solid Mechanics and its Applications, v. 144, XVI, 261 p p.
A chapter in an edited book
Cañada, A., and Villegas, S., 2015, Partial Differential Equations, in Villegas, S. ed., A Variational Approach to Lyapunov Type Inequalities: From ODEs to PDEs, Cham, Springer International Publishing, SpringerBriefs in Mathematics, p. 69–93.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Geology.

Blog post
Carpineti, A., 2017, Hubble’s Incredible Final Image Of The Frontier Fields: IFLScience,.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1994, Alternative-Fueled Vehicles: Progress Made in Accelerating Federal Purchases, but Benefits and Costs Remain Uncertain: U.S. Government Printing Office RCED-94-161.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Chen, A.P., 2008, An efficient algorithm for calculating fluctuation field and simulating the thermal magnetic aftereffect [Doctoral dissertation]: George Washington University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Powell, M., 2017, Power Players Behind A Gooden Ceremony: New York Times, p. B7.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Eagleman, 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Eagleman, 2004; Nordborg and Weigel, 2008).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Nordborg and Weigel, 2008)
  • Three or more authors: (Takahashi et al., 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleGeology
ISSN (print)0091-7613
ISSN (online)1943-2682

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