How to format your references using the Geology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Geology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Petherick, A., 2010, Development: Mother’s milk: A rich opportunity: Nature, v. 468, p. S5-7.
A journal article with 2 authors
Karpicke, J.D., and Blunt, J.R., 2011, Retrieval practice produces more learning than elaborative studying with concept mapping: Science (New York, N.Y.), v. 331, p. 772–775.
A journal article with 3 authors
Schumacher, M.A., Hurlburt, B.K., and Brennan, R.G., 2001, Crystal structures of SarA, a pleiotropic regulator of virulence genes in S. aureus: Nature, v. 409, p. 215–219.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Sime, L.C., Wolff, E.W., Oliver, K.I.C., and Tindall, J.C., 2009, Evidence for warmer interglacials in East Antarctic ice cores: Nature, v. 462, p. 342–345.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bertolini, L., Elsener, B., Pedeferri, P., and Polder, R.B., 2003, Corrosion of Steel in Concrete: Weinheim, FRG, Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
An edited book
Barceló, D., and Hansen, P.-D. (Eds.), 2009, Biosensors for Environmental Monitoring of Aquatic Systems: Bioanalytical and Chemical Methods for Endocrine Disruptors: Berlin, Heidelberg, Springer, The Handbook of Environmental Chemistry, v. 5J, XVI, 278 p p.
A chapter in an edited book
Volchkov, V.V., and Volchkov, V.V., 2009, Non-Euclidean Analogues of Plane Waves, in Volchkov, V.V. ed., Harmonic Analysis of Mean Periodic Functions on Symmetric Spaces and the Heisenberg Group, London, Springer, Springer Monographs in Mathematics, p. 135–152.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Geology.

Blog post
Taub, B., 2016, Riding A Roller Coaster Can Help Get Rid Of Kidney Stones: IFLScience,.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2005, Independent Media Development Abroad: Challenges Exist in Implementing U.S. Efforts and Measuring Results: U.S. Government Printing Office GAO-05-803.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Oparnica, D., 2013, The role of nurses in health care reform: A project report [Doctoral dissertation]: California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Bernstein, J., and Spielberg, B., 2017, Medicaid Work Rules Won’t Work: New York Times, p. A25.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Petherick, 2010).
This sentence cites two references (Petherick, 2010; Karpicke and Blunt, 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Karpicke and Blunt, 2011)
  • Three or more authors: (Sime et al., 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleGeology
ISSN (print)0091-7613
ISSN (online)1943-2682

Other styles