How to format your references using the Geology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Geology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Wilson, D.B., 2005, Immunology: Insulin auto-antigenicity in type 1 diabetes: Nature, v. 438, p. E5; discussion E5-6.
A journal article with 2 authors
Rosenfeld, D., and Woodley, W.L., 2000, Deep convective clouds with sustained supercooled liquid water down to -37.5 degrees C: Nature, v. 405, p. 440–442.
A journal article with 3 authors
Wu, D.W.-L., Bischof, W.F., and Kingstone, A., 2013, Looking while eating: the importance of social context to social attention: Scientific reports, v. 3, p. 2356.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
He, W., Zhu, T., Zhang, X.-Q., Yang, H.-T., and Cheng, Z.-H., 2013, Ultrafast demagnetization enhancement in CoFeB/MgO/CoFeB magnetic tunneling junction driven by spin tunneling current: Scientific reports, v. 3, p. 2883.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Lee Abbott, M., and McKinney, J., 2012, Understanding and Applying Research Design: Hoboken, NJ, John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Morandi, C., 2016, From Smart City to Smart Region: Digital Services for an Internet of Places (A. Rolando & S. Di Vita, Eds.): Cham, Springer International Publishing, SpringerBriefs in Applied Sciences and Technology, XIV, 103 p. 25 illus p.
A chapter in an edited book
Rezaizadeh, H., and Olson, E., 2016, Inflammatory Bowel Disease, in Wu, G.Y. ed., Pocket Handbook of GI Pharmacotherapeutics, Cham, Springer International Publishing, Clinical Gastroenterology, p. 45–63.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Geology.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2015, Remind Me Again, How Does Cannabis Affect The Brain? IFLScience,.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2010, Space Acquisitions: Challenges in Commercializing Technologies Developed under the Small Business Innovation Research Program: U.S. Government Printing Office GAO-11-21.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Powell, J.R., 2013, Ocean fronts in the Southern California Current System and their role in structuring zooplankton distributions, diel vertical migration, and size composition [Doctoral dissertation]: University of California San Diego.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly, S., 2001, Still Huffing, Still Puffing: New York Times, p. 720.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Wilson, 2005).
This sentence cites two references (Rosenfeld and Woodley, 2000; Wilson, 2005).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Rosenfeld and Woodley, 2000)
  • Three or more authors: (He et al., 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleGeology
ISSN (print)0091-7613
ISSN (online)1943-2682

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