How to format your references using the Geology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Geology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Csatho, B.M., 2015, Climate science: A history of Greenland’s ice loss: Nature, v. 528, p. 341–343.
A journal article with 2 authors
Zhong, W., and Sternberg, P.W., 2006, Genome-wide prediction of C. elegans genetic interactions: Science (New York, N.Y.), v. 311, p. 1481–1484.
A journal article with 3 authors
Phillips, B.L., Casey, W.H., and Karlsson, M., 2000, Bonding and reactivity at oxide mineral surfaces from model aqueous complexes: Nature, v. 404, p. 379–382.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Li, S., Xue, Q., Duh, J.-G., Du, H., Xu, J., Wan, Y., Li, Q., and Lü, Y., 2014, Driving ferromagnetic resonance frequency of FeCoB/PZN-PT multiferroic heterostructures to Ku-band via two-step climbing: composition gradient sputtering and magnetoelectric coupling: Scientific reports, v. 4, p. 7393.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
O’Gorman, T.W., 2012, Adaptive Tests of Significance Using Permutations of Residuals with R and SAS®: Hoboken, NJ, John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Ronan, K.R., 2005, Promoting Community Resilience in Disasters: The Role for Schools, Youth, and Families (D. M. Johnston, Ed.): Boston, MA, Springer US, XI, 210 p p.
A chapter in an edited book
Ganty, P., Raskin, J.-F., and Van Begin, L., 2006, A Complete Abstract Interpretation Framework for Coverability Properties of WSTS, in Emerson, E.A. and Namjoshi, K.S. eds., Verification, Model Checking, and Abstract Interpretation: 7th International Conference, VMCAI 2006, Charleston, SC, USA, January 8-10, 2006. Proceedings, Berlin, Heidelberg, Springer, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, p. 49–64.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Geology.

Blog post
Luntz, S., 2014, Earth’s Magnetic Pole Could Reverse Within A Single Human Lifetime: IFLScience, (accessed October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1977, Private, Profitmaking Firms’ Reports on Research and Development Contracts with the Environmental Protection Agency Can Be Evaluated Better: U.S. Government Printing Office PSAD-77-161.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Pence, P.L., 2010, Emotional intelligence, motivation, and retention among undergraduate students attending associate-degree nursing programs in Illinois [Doctoral dissertation]: University of Phoenix.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Paulson, M., and Kishkovsky, S., 2015, Play About Oscar Wilde Runs Afoul of Kremlin: New York Times, p. C1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Csatho, 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Zhong and Sternberg, 2006; Csatho, 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Zhong and Sternberg, 2006)
  • Three or more authors: (Li et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleGeology
ISSN (print)0091-7613
ISSN (online)1943-2682

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