How to format your references using the Geology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Geology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Wodarz, D., 2001, Mechanisms underlying antigen-specific CD8+ T cell homeostasis: Science (New York, N.Y.), v. 292, p. 595.
A journal article with 2 authors
Dudney, N.J., and Li, J., 2015, Materials science. Using all energy in a battery: Science (New York, N.Y.), v. 347, p. 131–132.
A journal article with 3 authors
Deecke, V.B., Slater, P.J.B., and Ford, J.K.B., 2002, Selective habituation shapes acoustic predator recognition in harbour seals: Nature, v. 420, p. 171–173.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Bahr, C. et al., 2018, A Myc enhancer cluster regulates normal and leukaemic haematopoietic stem cell hierarchies: Nature, v. 553, p. 515–520.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Turner, J.R., and Durham, T.A., 2008, Integrated Cardiac Safety: Assessment Methodologies for Noncardiac Drugs in Discovery, Development, and Postmarketing Surveillance: Hoboken, NJ, John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Silverman, B.G., Jain, A., Ichalkaranje, A., and Jain, L.C. (Eds.), 2005, Intelligent Paradigms for Healthcare Enterprises: Berlin, Heidelberg, Springer, Studies in Fuzziness and Soft Computing, v. 184, XVI, 266 p. 69 illus p.
A chapter in an edited book
Schubert, G., and Fehske, H., 2009, Quantum Percolation in Disordered Structures, in Chakrabarti, B.K., Bardhan, K.K., and Sen, A.K. eds., Quantum and Semi-classical Percolation and Breakdown in Disordered Solids, Berlin, Heidelberg, Springer, Lecture Notes in Physics, p. 1–28.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Geology.

Blog post
Hamilton, K., 2016, Two Children in Every Class Start School With An Unexplained Language Disorder: IFLScience, (accessed October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2005, Aviation Security: Better Planning Needed to Optimize Deployment of Checked Baggage Screening Systems: U.S. Government Printing Office GAO-05-896T.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Smith, C., 2013, The affect of acculturation on obesity among foreign-born Asians residing in the United States [Doctoral dissertation]: California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Cooper, M., and Kourlas, G., 2017, Rockettes’ Big Show For Spring Is Killed: New York Times, p. C1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Wodarz, 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Wodarz, 2001; Dudney and Li, 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Dudney and Li, 2015)
  • Three or more authors: (Bahr et al., 2018)

About the journal

Full journal titleGeology
ISSN (print)0091-7613
ISSN (online)1943-2682

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