How to format your references using the Electronic Commerce Research and Applications citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Electronic Commerce Research and Applications. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Smaglik, P., 2005. Central stations. Nature 433, 439.
A journal article with 2 authors
Fox, E.J., Loeb, L.A., 2014. Cancer: One cell at a time. Nature 512, 143–144.
A journal article with 3 authors
Ekström, G., Nettles, M., Tsai, V.C., 2006. Seasonality and increasing frequency of Greenland glacial earthquakes. Science 311, 1756–1758.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Kaasalainen, M., Durech, J., Warner, B.D., Krugly, Y.N., Gaftonyuk, N.M., 2007. Acceleration of the rotation of asteroid 1862 Apollo by radiation torques. Nature 446, 420–422.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Koepsell, D., 2015. Who Owns You? John Wiley & Sons Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Kim, J., Garcia-Aguilar, J. (Eds.), 2015. Surgery for Cancers of the Gastrointestinal Tract: A Step-by-Step Approach. Springer, New York, NY.
A chapter in an edited book
Haney, K., 2006. Improvisation in the Dance of Life: the Microcosm and Macrocosm, in: Tymieniecka, A.-T. (Ed.), Islamic Philosophy and Occidental Phenomenology on the Perennial Issue of Microcosm and Macrocosm. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, pp. 97–111.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Electronic Commerce Research and Applications.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2014. Bats Use Polarized Light To Calibrate Internal Compass [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1999. Federal Research Grants: Compensation Paid to Graduate Students at the University of California (No. OSI-99-8). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Mitchell, V.M., 2014. A phenomenological study factors African American female college students face participating in engineering STEM majors (Doctoral dissertation). University of Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Sisario, B., 2017. The Pianist Behind Dylan’s Nobel Lecture. New York Times C2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Smaglik, 2005).
This sentence cites two references (Fox and Loeb, 2014; Smaglik, 2005).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Fox and Loeb, 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Kaasalainen et al., 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleElectronic Commerce Research and Applications
AbbreviationElectron. Commer. Res. Appl.
ISSN (print)1567-4223
ScopeManagement of Technology and Innovation
Computer Networks and Communications
Computer Science Applications

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