How to format your references using the Electronic Commerce Research and Applications citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Electronic Commerce Research and Applications. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Omelon, S., 2004. Graduate journal: from biochemist to engineer. Nature 427, 180.
A journal article with 2 authors
Poggio, T., Bizzi, E., 2004. Generalization in vision and motor control. Nature 431, 768–774.
A journal article with 3 authors
Lin, S.-C., Lo, Y.-C., Wu, H., 2010. Helical assembly in the MyD88-IRAK4-IRAK2 complex in TLR/IL-1R signalling. Nature 465, 885–890.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Poremba, A., Malloy, M., Saunders, R.C., Carson, R.E., Herscovitch, P., Mishkin, M., 2004. Species-specific calls evoke asymmetric activity in the monkey’s temporal poles. Nature 427, 448–451.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Fight, A., 2004. Understanding International Bank Risk. John Wiley & Sons Ltd, Oxford, UK.
An edited book
Maleque, M.A., 2013. Materials Selection and Design, SpringerBriefs in Materials. Springer, Singapore.
A chapter in an edited book
Rapp, R., Kämpfer, B., Andronic, A., Blaschke, D., Fuchs, C., Harada, M., Hilger, T., Kitazawa, M., Kunihiro, T., Petreczky, P., Riek, F., Sasaki, C., Thomas, R., Tolos, L., Zhuang, P., van Hees, H., Vogt, R., Zschocke, S., 2011. In-Medium Excitations, in: Friman, B., Höhne, C., Knoll, J., Leupold, S., Randrup, J., Rapp, Ralf, Senger, P. (Eds.), The CBM Physics Book: Compressed Baryonic Matter in Laboratory Experiments, Lecture Notes in Physics. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 335–529.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Electronic Commerce Research and Applications.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2015. Researchers Have Developed A Stretchable Loudspeaker [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1981. Legislative and Regulatory Actions Needed To Deal With a Changing Domestic Telecommunications Industry (No. CED-81-136). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Nguyen, M., 2010. Therapeutic groups for adults with mental illness and their caregivers: A grant proposal (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Billard, M., 2010. Their Lotus Can’t Take Root On a Mat. New York Times ST6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Omelon, 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Omelon, 2004; Poggio and Bizzi, 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Poggio and Bizzi, 2004)
  • Three or more authors: (Poremba et al., 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleElectronic Commerce Research and Applications
AbbreviationElectron. Commer. Res. Appl.
ISSN (print)1567-4223
ScopeManagement of Technology and Innovation
Computer Networks and Communications
Computer Science Applications

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