How to format your references using the Electronic Commerce Research and Applications citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Electronic Commerce Research and Applications. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hermann, T., 2015. Non-coding RNA: Antibiotic tricks a switch. Nature 526, 650–651.
A journal article with 2 authors
Rowan, L., Coontz, R., 2002. Great balls of fire. Star formation: a Web supplement. Science 295, 63.
A journal article with 3 authors
Hwang, H., Opresko, P., Myong, S., 2014. Single-molecule real-time detection of telomerase extension activity. Sci. Rep. 4, 6391.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Brebner, K., Wong, T.P., Liu, L., Liu, Y., Campsall, P., Gray, S., Phelps, L., Phillips, A.G., Wang, Y.T., 2005. Nucleus accumbens long-term depression and the expression of behavioral sensitization. Science 310, 1340–1343.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Moll, W., Moll, A., 2011. Schallschutz im Wohnungsbau. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, Germany.
An edited book
Nick, P., Opatrny, Z. (Eds.), 2014. Applied Plant Cell Biology: Cellular Tools and Approaches for Plant Biotechnology, Plant Cell Monographs. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Brinkmann, M., Khare, K., Seemann, R., 2007. Control of Liquids by Surface Energies, in: Hardt, S., Schönfeld, F. (Eds.), Microfluidic Technologies for Miniaturized Analysis Systems. Springer US, Boston, MA, pp. 157–202.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Electronic Commerce Research and Applications.

Blog post
Fang, J., 2015. NASA’s New Horizons Readies for This Summer’s Pluto Flyby [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2016. Federal Air Marshal Service: Additional Actions Needed to Ensure Air Marshals’ Mission Readiness (No. GAO-16-764). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Martinez, J.C., 2015. Theoretically tested remediation in response to insect resistance to Bt corn and Bt cotton: A new paradigm (Doctoral dissertation). Mississippi State University, Mississippi State, MS.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly, D., 2001. The A List. New York Times 713.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Hermann, 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Hermann, 2015; Rowan and Coontz, 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Rowan and Coontz, 2002)
  • Three or more authors: (Brebner et al., 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleElectronic Commerce Research and Applications
AbbreviationElectron. Commer. Res. Appl.
ISSN (print)1567-4223
ScopeManagement of Technology and Innovation
Computer Networks and Communications
Computer Science Applications

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