How to format your references using the Electronic Commerce Research and Applications citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Electronic Commerce Research and Applications. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Blow, N., 2009. Glycobiology: A spoonful of sugar. Nature 457, 617–620.
A journal article with 2 authors
Myers, M.G., Jr, Olson, D.P., 2012. Central nervous system control of metabolism. Nature 491, 357–363.
A journal article with 3 authors
Bruskotter, J.T., Enzler, S.A., Treves, A., 2011. Science and law. Rescuing wolves from politics: wildlife as a public trust resource. Science 333, 1828–1829.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Meshorer, E., Erb, C., Gazit, R., Pavlovsky, L., Kaufer, D., Friedman, A., Glick, D., Ben-Arie, N., Soreq, H., 2002. Alternative splicing and neuritic mRNA translocation under long-term neuronal hypersensitivity. Science 295, 508–512.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Olofsson, P., 2014. Probabilities. John Wiley & Sons, Inc, Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Leal Filho, W., Muthu, N., Edwin, G., Sima, M. (Eds.), 2015. Implementing Campus Greening Initiatives: Approaches, Methods and Perspectives, World Sustainability Series. Springer International Publishing, Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
Richthammer, H., Reif, S., 2016. Intrusion Detection in the Smart Grid Based on an Analogue Technique, in: Camenisch, J., Kesdoğan, D. (Eds.), Open Problems in Network Security: IFIP WG 11.4 International Workshop, INetSec 2015, Zurich, Switzerland, October 29, 2015, Revised Selected Papers, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp. 56–67.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Electronic Commerce Research and Applications.

Blog post
Carpineti, A., 2016. Boron Discovered On Mars For The First Time [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1988. Telecommunications Acquisitions: Information on GSA’s Procurements (No. IMTEC-88-24). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Anderson, E., 2017. Predicting Home Purchase Location in DC: An Intersectional Approach (Doctoral dissertation). George Washington University, Washington, DC.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kenigsberg, B., 2017. Read All About It, If You Still Can. New York Times C10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Blow, 2009).
This sentence cites two references (Blow, 2009; Myers and Olson, 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Myers and Olson, 2012)
  • Three or more authors: (Meshorer et al., 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleElectronic Commerce Research and Applications
AbbreviationElectron. Commer. Res. Appl.
ISSN (print)1567-4223
ScopeManagement of Technology and Innovation
Computer Networks and Communications
Computer Science Applications

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