How to format your references using the Medicine Studies citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Medicine Studies. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Chyba, C. F. 2000. Energy for microbial life on Europa. Nature 403: 381–382.
A journal article with 2 authors
Long, Feng, and Hanchang Shi. 2014. Simple and compact optode for real-time in-situ temperature detection in very small samples. Scientific reports 4: 5009.
A journal article with 3 authors
Oliveira, Erneson A., José S. Andrade Jr, and Hernán A. Makse. 2014. Large cities are less green. Scientific reports 4: 4235.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Kraus, Stefan, Karl-Heinz Hofmann, Karl M. Menten, Dieter Schertl, Gerd Weigelt, Friedrich Wyrowski, Anthony Meilland, et al. 2010. A hot compact dust disk around a massive young stellar object. Nature 466: 339–342.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Rao, C. Lakshmana, V. Narayanamurthy, and K. R. Y. Simha. 2016. Applied Impact Mechanics. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Hogan, Jeffrey A. 2012. Duration and Bandwidth Limiting: Prolate Functions, Sampling, and Applications. Edited by Jose Lakey. 1st Edition. Applied and Numerical Harmonic Analysis. Boston, MA: Birkhäuser.
A chapter in an edited book
Diao, Liang, Dan Wang, Zhouhua Peng, and Lei Guo. 2015. Neural Dynamic Surface Control for Three-Phase PWM Voltage Source Rectifier. In Advances in Neural Networks – ISNN 2015: 12th International Symposium on Neural Networks, ISNN 2015, Jeju, South Korea, October 15-18, 2015, Proceedings, ed. Xiaolin Hu, Yousheng Xia, Yunong Zhang, and Dongbin Zhao, 28–35. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Medicine Studies.

Blog post
Hale, Tom. 2016. Millions Of Sterile Flies Join The Fight Against Florida’s Flesh-Eating Maggots. IFLScience. IFLScience. November 4.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1996. Earth Observing System: Cost and Research Issues. T-NSIAD-96-116. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Eskridge, Robert Dayle. 2012. Municipal government: Does institutional structural reform make a difference in local government? Doctoral dissertation, Mississippi State, MS: Mississippi State University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kenigsberg, Ben. 2016. Review: ‘Hogtown’ Tells a Poetic Detective Story in Chicago. New York Times, December 1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Rodnina 2013).
This sentence cites two references (Power 2010; Crothers 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Long and Shi 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Nettles et al. 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleMedicine Studies
AbbreviationMed. Stud.
ISSN (print)1876-4533
ISSN (online)1876-4541
ScopeGeneral Medicine

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