How to format your references using the Medicine Studies citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Medicine Studies. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Korenaga, Jun. 2008. Comment on “Intermittent plate tectonics?” Science (New York, N.Y.) 320: 1291; author reply 1291.
A journal article with 2 authors
Palumbi, Stephen R., and Robert R. Warner. 2003. Ecology. Why gobies are like Hobbits. Science (New York, N.Y.) 299: 51–52.
A journal article with 3 authors
Osawa, Masaki, David E. Anderson, and Harold P. Erickson. 2008. Reconstitution of contractile FtsZ rings in liposomes. Science (New York, N.Y.) 320: 792–794.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Monnappa, Ajay K., Mohammed Dwidar, Jeong Kon Seo, Jin-Hoe Hur, and Robert J. Mitchell. 2014. Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus inhibits Staphylococcus aureus biofilm formation and invasion into human epithelial cells. Scientific reports 4: 3811.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Langton, Roy. 2006. Stability and Control of Aircraft Systems. Chichester, England: John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
An edited book
Tinning, Richard, and Karen Sirna, ed. 2011. Education, Social Justice and the Legacy of Deakin University: Reflections of the Deakin Diaspora. Vol. 76. Transgressions: Cultural Studies and Education. Rotterdam: SensePublishers.
A chapter in an edited book
Rivera, Eugenio, and Adolfo Rodríguez. 2008. Competition and Regulation in the Banking Systems of Central America and Mexico: A Comparative Study. In Competition Policies in Emerging Economies: Lessons and Challenges from Central America and Mexico, ed. Claudia Schatan and Eugenio Rivera, 97–143. New York, NY: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Medicine Studies.

Blog post
Luntz, Stephen. 2015. Tusks Tell The Tale Of Mammoth Extinction. IFLScience. IFLScience. October 19.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1982. A Summary of the Legislative Provisions of the Block Grants Created by the 1981 Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act. IPE-83-2. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Rogers, Samuel. 2014. Teacher Induction Programs: How Key Components Influence Teacher Retention Rates in Rural School Districts. Doctoral dissertation, St. Charles, MO: Lindenwood University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Quain, John R. 2017. Self-Driving Cars Might Need Standards, but Whose? New York Times, February 23.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Korenaga 2008).
This sentence cites two references (Palumbi and Warner 2003; Korenaga 2008).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Palumbi and Warner 2003)
  • Three or more authors: (Monnappa et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleMedicine Studies
AbbreviationMed. Stud.
ISSN (print)1876-4533
ISSN (online)1876-4541
ScopeGeneral Medicine

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