How to format your references using the Medicine Studies citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Medicine Studies. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Gershon, Diane. 2002. Toxicogenomics gains impetus. Nature 415: 4–5.
A journal article with 2 authors
Bouchon, Michel, and Hayrullah Karabulut. 2008. The aftershock signature of supershear earthquakes. Science (New York, N.Y.) 320: 1323–1325.
A journal article with 3 authors
Jenkins, Noah, Jennifer R. Saam, and Susan E. Mango. 2006. CYK-4/GAP provides a localized cue to initiate anteroposterior polarity upon fertilization. Science (New York, N.Y.) 313: 1298–1301.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Stanley, Sabine, Linda Elkins-Tanton, Maria T. Zuber, and E. Marc Parmentier. 2008. Mars’ paleomagnetic field as the result of a single-hemisphere dynamo. Science (New York, N.Y.) 321: 1822–1825.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Firth-Cozens, Jenny, and Jamie Harrison. 2010. How to Survive in Medicine. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell.
An edited book
Qin, Yuming. 2012. Global Well-posedness of Nonlinear Parabolic-Hyperbolic Coupled Systems. Edited by Lan Huang. Frontiers in Mathematics. Basel: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Weir, Tiffany, Daniel Manter, and Waltraud Kofer. 2011. Microbes: A New Frontier in Tropical Chemical Biology. In Chemical Biology of the Tropics: An Interdisciplinary Approach, ed. Jorge M. Vivanco and Tiffany Weir, 71–86. Signaling and Communication in Plants. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Medicine Studies.

Blog post
Luntz, Stephen. 2015. World’s Largest Wasp Nest Found In Tasmania. IFLScience. IFLScience. April 2.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1992. Internal Control Weaknesses in Army Safeguarding of Computer Equipment. AFMD-92-60ML. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Wolodkowicz, Richard. 2008. Leadership qualities and employee-student future intentions. Doctoral dissertation, Phoenix, AZ: University of Phoenix.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Goldman, Adam, and Michael S. Schmidt. 2017. F.B.I. Nominee Backs Russia Inquiry and Pledges to Resist White House Pressure. New York Times, July 12.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Gershon 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Gershon 2002; Bouchon and Karabulut 2008).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Bouchon and Karabulut 2008)
  • Three or more authors: (Stanley et al. 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleMedicine Studies
AbbreviationMed. Stud.
ISSN (print)1876-4533
ISSN (online)1876-4541
ScopeGeneral Medicine

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