How to format your references using the Medicine Studies citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Medicine Studies. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Turner, Drew L. 2014. Space science: Near-Earth space shows its stripes. Nature 507: 308–309.
A journal article with 2 authors
Wasserman, S. A., and S. DiNardo. 2001. Development. Staying a boy forever. Science (New York, N.Y.) 294: 2495–2497.
A journal article with 3 authors
Sullivan, Matthew B., John B. Waterbury, and Sallie W. Chisholm. 2003. Cyanophages infecting the oceanic cyanobacterium Prochlorococcus. Nature 424: 1047–1051.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Kimura, T., T. Goto, H. Shintani, K. Ishizaka, T. Arima, and Y. Tokura. 2003. Magnetic control of ferroelectric polarization. Nature 426: 55–58.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kowalick, Thomas M. 2004. Fatal Exit. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Besnard, Denis, Cristina Gacek, and Cliff B. Jones, ed. 2006. Structure for Dependability: Computer-Based Systems from an Interdisciplinary Perspective. London: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Fiser, Ondrej, and Vladimir Brazda. 2016. Experimental Validation of FSO Channel Models. In Optical Wireless Communications: An Emerging Technology, ed. Murat Uysal, Carlo Capsoni, Zabih Ghassemlooy, Anthony Boucouvalas, and Eszter Udvary, 69–86. Signals and Communication Technology. Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Medicine Studies.

Blog post
Andrew, Elise. 2015. Dogs Can Tell The Difference Between Happy And Angry Faces. IFLScience. IFLScience. February 13.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1997. School Finance: State Efforts to Reduce Funding Gaps Between Poor and Wealthy Districts. HEHS-97-31. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Shafran, Rachel Faoutas. 2017. Leading Organizational Change: A Phenomenological Study of the Nonlinear Strategies Used by Female Leaders in Global Companies. Doctoral dissertation, Malibu, CA: Pepperdine University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Feeney, Kelly. 2008. Freshness City Dwellers Hunger For. New York Times, June 29.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Turner 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Wasserman and DiNardo 2001; Turner 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Wasserman and DiNardo 2001)
  • Three or more authors: (Kimura et al. 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleMedicine Studies
AbbreviationMed. Stud.
ISSN (print)1876-4533
ISSN (online)1876-4541
ScopeGeneral Medicine

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