How to format your references using the Medicine Studies citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Medicine Studies. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Dragert, Herb. 2007. Geophysics. Mediating plate convergence. Science (New York, N.Y.) 315: 471–472.
A journal article with 2 authors
Arnqvist, Göran, and Locke Rowe. 2002. Antagonistic coevolution between the sexes in a group of insects. Nature 415: 787–789.
A journal article with 3 authors
Neutel, Anje-Margriet, Johan A. P. Heesterbeek, and Peter C. De Ruiter. 2002. Stability in real food webs: weak links in long loops. Science (New York, N.Y.) 296: 1120–1123.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Myong, Sua, Michael M. Bruno, Anna M. Pyle, and Taekjip Ha. 2007. Spring-loaded mechanism of DNA unwinding by hepatitis C virus NS3 helicase. Science (New York, N.Y.) 317: 513–516.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Rich, Phil. 2011. Understanding, Assessing, and Rehabilitating Juvenile Sexual Offenders. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Kelemen, Arpad, Ajith Abraham, and Yulan Liang, ed. 2008. Computational Intelligence in Medical Informatics. Vol. 85. Studies in Computational Intelligence. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Brown, James Robert. 2005. Naturalism, Pictures, and Platonic Intuitions. In Visualization, Explanation and Reasoning Styles in Mathematics, ed. Paolo Mancosu, Klaus Frovin Jørgensen, and Stig Andur Pedersen, 57–73. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Medicine Studies.

Blog post
Andrew, Danielle. 2016. Flashbulb Memories Of Dramatic Events Aren’t As Accurate As Believed. IFLScience. IFLScience. September 12.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1987. Weather Satellites: Economies Available by Converging Government Meteorological Satellites. NSIAD-87-107. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Chavez, Gabriela. 2017. Creating Integrated, Inquiry Science Lessons Based on Early Childhood Science Activities. Doctoral dissertation, Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Brantley, Ben. 2016. Election Night, With a Play in Real Time. New York Times, November 9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Dragert 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Arnqvist and Rowe 2002; Dragert 2007).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Arnqvist and Rowe 2002)
  • Three or more authors: (Myong et al. 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleMedicine Studies
AbbreviationMed. Stud.
ISSN (print)1876-4533
ISSN (online)1876-4541
ScopeGeneral Medicine

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