How to format your references using the Medicine Studies citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Medicine Studies. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Nave, Klaus-Armin. 2010. Myelination and support of axonal integrity by glia. Nature 468: 244–252.
A journal article with 2 authors
Hardison, Ross C., and Gerd A. Blobel. 2013. Genetics. GWAS to therapy by genome edits? Science (New York, N.Y.) 342: 206–207.
A journal article with 3 authors
Adams, Erin J., Yueh-Hsiu Chien, and K. Christopher Garcia. 2005. Structure of a gammadelta T cell receptor in complex with the nonclassical MHC T22. Science (New York, N.Y.) 308: 227–231.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Tzur, Amit, Ran Kafri, Valerie S. LeBleu, Galit Lahav, and Marc W. Kirschner. 2009. Cell growth and size homeostasis in proliferating animal cells. Science (New York, N.Y.) 325: 167–171.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Mann, Steven. 2010. Microsoft® SharePoint® Server 2010 Bible. Indianapolis, IN, USA: Wiley Publishing, Inc.
An edited book
Rebohle, Lars. 2010. Rare-Earth Implanted MOS Devices for Silicon Photonics: Microstructural, Electrical and Optoelectronic Properties. Edited by Wolfgang Skorupa. Vol. 142. Springer Series in Materials Science. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Stafford, Casey. 2016. Confronting “The Conditions” of Sénégalese Higher Education: Reframing Representation and Activism. In Education and Youth Agency: Qualitative Case Studies in Global Contexts, ed. Joan G. DeJaeghere, Jasmina Josić, and Kate S. McCleary, 65–82. Advancing Responsible Adolescent Development. Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Medicine Studies.

Blog post
Davis, Josh. 2016. Human Embryos Grown In Lab For Record Period Of Time. IFLScience. IFLScience. May 5.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2005. Amtrak: Improved Management and Controls over Food and Beverage Service Needed. GAO-05-867. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Limpert, Stefanie Marie. 2017. A Qualitative Study of Learning Spaces at a Midwest Elementary School and its Relationship to Student Attitudes about Reading. Doctoral dissertation, St. Charles, MO: Lindenwood University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Pilon, Mary. 2013. A Series of Poses for Fitness, Inside and Out. New York Times, January 3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Nave 2010).
This sentence cites two references (Nave 2010; Hardison and Blobel 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Hardison and Blobel 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (Tzur et al. 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleMedicine Studies
AbbreviationMed. Stud.
ISSN (print)1876-4533
ISSN (online)1876-4541
ScopeGeneral Medicine

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