How to format your references using the Medicine Studies citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Medicine Studies. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Haag, Amanda. 2007. Climate of opportunity. Nature 448: 618–619.
A journal article with 2 authors
Patzelt, Felix, and Klaus Pawelzik. 2013. An inherent instability of efficient markets. Scientific reports 3: 2784.
A journal article with 3 authors
Bazin, Eric, Sylvain Glémin, and Nicolas Galtier. 2006. Population size does not influence mitochondrial genetic diversity in animals. Science (New York, N.Y.) 312: 570–572.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Evans, P. G., E. D. Isaacs, G. Aeppli, Z. Cai, and B. Lai. 2002. X-ray microdiffraction images of antiferromagnetic domain evolution in chromium. Science (New York, N.Y.) 295: 1042–1045.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Schattke, Wolfgang, and Ricardo Díez Muiño. 2013. Quantum Monte Carlo Programming. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
An edited book
Józefowska, Joanna, ed. 2007. Just-In-Time Scheduling: Models and Algorithms for Computer and Manufacturing Systems. Vol. 106. International Series In Operations Research Amp; Mana. Boston, MA: Springer US.
A chapter in an edited book
Milgrom, Jeannette, Jennifer Ericksen, and Anne Sved-Williams. 2016. Impact of Parental Psychiatric Illness on Infant Development. In Joint Care of Parents and Infants in Perinatal Psychiatry, ed. Anne-Laure Sutter-Dallay, Nine M. C. Glangeaud-Freudenthal, Antoine Guedeney, and Anita Riecher-Rössler, 47–78. Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Medicine Studies.

Blog post
Andrew, Elise. 2015. Pope Francis Throws Down The Gauntlet For Paris Climate Summit. IFLScience. IFLScience. June 19.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1996. Regulatory Burden. GGD-97-26R. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Roberts, Deborah Morgan. 2017. Resilience in Physically Maltreated Adolescents: Interpersonally Related Protective Factors and Gender Differences. Doctoral dissertation, Washington, DC: George Washington University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kenigsberg, Ben. 2017. Sami Blood. New York Times, June 1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Haag 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Haag 2007; Patzelt and Pawelzik 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Patzelt and Pawelzik 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (Evans et al. 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleMedicine Studies
AbbreviationMed. Stud.
ISSN (print)1876-4533
ISSN (online)1876-4541
ScopeGeneral Medicine

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