How to format your references using the Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Stein, Lincoln. 2002. Creating a bioinformatics nation. Nature 417: 119–120.
A journal article with 2 authors
Friedman, Adam, and Norbert Perrimon. 2006. A functional RNAi screen for regulators of receptor tyrosine kinase and ERK signalling. Nature 444: 230–234.
A journal article with 3 authors
Zhong, Y., L. Zhang, and D. Su. 2000. Collaborations tailored for bioinformatics projects. Science (New York, N.Y.) 290: 2074a.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Zhang, Hai-Ping, Jian-Bo Pan, Chi Zhang, Nan Ji, Hao Wang, and Zhi-Liang Ji. 2014. Network understanding of herb medicine via rapid identification of ingredient-target interactions. Scientific reports 4: 3719.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Crook, Tony, and Peter A. Kemp. 2010. Transforming Private Landlords. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell.
An edited book
Wu, Albert M., ed. 2011. The Molecular Immunology of Complex Carbohydrates-3. Vol. 705. Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology. Boston, MA: Springer US.
A chapter in an edited book
Nevile, J. W. 2016. Just and Unjust Macro-economic Policy. In Post-Keynesian Essays from Down Under Volume III: Essays on Ethics, Social Justice and Economics: Theory and Policy in an Historical Context, ed. G. C. Harcourt, Peter Kriesler, and J. W. Nevile, 34–44. London: Palgrave Macmillan UK.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy.

Blog post
Luntz, Stephen. 2015. Newly Released Photograph Shows Strange “Hole” In Space. IFLScience. IFLScience. May 7.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2004. Public Community Colleges and Technical Schools: Most Schools Use Both Credit and Noncredit Programs for Workforce Development. GAO-05-4. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Teague, Helen Louise. 2017. A Mixed Methods Study of Online Course Facilitators’ Perceptions of Mobile Technology, Design, and TPaCK Affordances. Doctoral dissertation, Malibu, CA: Pepperdine University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Barron, James. 2017. A Historic Home Burns, and Suspicions Spread. New York Times, February 8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Stein 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Stein 2002; Friedman and Perrimon 2006).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Friedman and Perrimon 2006)
  • Three or more authors: (Zhang et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleMedicine, Health Care and Philosophy
AbbreviationMed. Health Care Philos.
ISSN (print)1386-7423
ISSN (online)1572-8633
ScopeHealth Policy
Health(social science)

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