How to format your references using the Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Sreenivasan, Sameet. 2013. Quantitative analysis of the evolution of novelty in cinema through crowdsourced keywords. Scientific reports 3: 2758.
A journal article with 2 authors
Raser, Jonathan M., and Erin K. O’Shea. 2005. Noise in gene expression: origins, consequences, and control. Science (New York, N.Y.) 309: 2010–2013.
A journal article with 3 authors
Chabre, Marc, Richard Cone, and Helen Saibil. 2003. Biophysics: is rhodopsin dimeric in native retinal rods? Nature 426: 30–1; discussion 31.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Zhao, Yongxin, Satoko Araki, Jiahui Wu, Takayuki Teramoto, Yu-Fen Chang, Masahiro Nakano, Ahmed S. Abdelfattah, et al. 2011. An expanded palette of genetically encoded Ca2+ indicators. Science (New York, N.Y.) 333: 1888–1891.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bruen, Aiden A., and Mario A. Forcinito. 2004. Cryptography, Information Theory, and Error-Correction. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Smith, Dave. 2012. Android Recipes: A Problem-Solution Approach. Edited by Jeff Friesen. Second Edition. Berkeley, CA: Apress.
A chapter in an edited book
O’Connor, Martin F., and Mark Roantree. 2012. SCOOTER: A Compact and Scalable Dynamic Labeling Scheme for XML Updates. In Database and Expert Systems Applications: 23rd International Conference, DEXA 2012, Vienna, Austria, September 3-6, 2012. Proceedings, Part I, ed. Stephen W. Liddle, Klaus-Dieter Schewe, A. Min Tjoa, and Xiaofang Zhou, 26–40. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy.

Blog post
Andrew, Elise. 2015. Now That’s A Close Shave: Secrets Of The Halloween Asteroid Headed For Earth. IFLScience. IFLScience. October 30.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1999. Federal Judiciary: Information on the Weighted Filings Assigned to Senior District and Magistrate Judges in Fiscal Year 1997 in 21 District Courts. GGD-99-37R. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Pathak, Anand. 2006. The Role of the Protein Phosphatase 1 Inhibitor-1 In Regulation of Murine Cardiac Physiology and Progression of Cardiomyopathy. Doctoral dissertation, Cincinnati, OH: University of Cincinnati.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse, Linda. 2017. What the Chief Justice Should Have Said. New York Times, January 5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Sreenivasan 2013).
This sentence cites two references (Raser and O’Shea 2005; Sreenivasan 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Raser and O’Shea 2005)
  • Three or more authors: (Zhao et al. 2011)

About the journal

Full journal titleMedicine, Health Care and Philosophy
AbbreviationMed. Health Care Philos.
ISSN (print)1386-7423
ISSN (online)1572-8633
ScopeHealth Policy
Health(social science)

Other styles