How to format your references using the Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Palmer, Tim. 2014. Climate forecasting: build high-resolution global climate models. Nature 515: 338–339.
A journal article with 2 authors
Thiele, Alexander, and Gene Stoner. 2003. Neuronal synchrony does not correlate with motion coherence in cortical area MT. Nature 421: 366–370.
A journal article with 3 authors
Salganik, Matthew J., Peter Sheridan Dodds, and Duncan J. Watts. 2006. Experimental study of inequality and unpredictability in an artificial cultural market. Science (New York, N.Y.) 311: 854–856.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Neuser, Kirsa, Tilman Triphan, Markus Mronz, Burkhard Poeck, and Roland Strauss. 2008. Analysis of a spatial orientation memory in Drosophila. Nature 453: 1244–1247.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Gilmore, Robert, and Marc Lefranc. 2011. The Topology of Chaos. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
An edited book
Balandin, Sergey, Dmitri Moltchanov, and Yevgeni Koucheryavy, ed. 2008. Next Generation Teletraffic and Wired/Wireless Advanced Networking: 8th International Conference, NEW2AN and 1st Russian Conference on Smart Spaces, ruSMART 2008 St. Petersburg, Russia, September 3-5, 2008. Proceedings. Vol. 5174. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Makowsky, Johann. 2009. Connection Matrices for MSOL-Definable Structural Invariants. In Logic and Its Applications: Third Indian Conference, ICLA 2009, Chennai, India, January 7-11, 2009. Proceedings, ed. R. Ramanujam and Sundar Sarukkai, 51–64. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy.

Blog post
Andrew, Elise. 2014. Unusual Organic Molecule Discovered At The Heart Of The Milky Way. IFLScience. IFLScience. September 26.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2000. Cooperative Research: Results of U.S.-Industry Partnership to Develop a New Generation of Vehicles. RCED-00-81. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Salters, Denecise Darcell. 2008. The effects of independent reading on the reading comprehension skills of sixth-grade students. Doctoral dissertation, Phoenix, AZ: University of Phoenix.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Cooper, Michael. 2017. The Met Offers Buyouts To 21 of Its Employees. New York Times, September 28.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Palmer 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Thiele and Stoner 2003; Palmer 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Thiele and Stoner 2003)
  • Three or more authors: (Neuser et al. 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleMedicine, Health Care and Philosophy
AbbreviationMed. Health Care Philos.
ISSN (print)1386-7423
ISSN (online)1572-8633
ScopeHealth Policy
Health(social science)

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