How to format your references using the Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Soper, Alan K. 2015. Physical chemistry: Square ice in a graphene sandwich. Nature 519: 417–418.
A journal article with 2 authors
Palmer, Linda, and Gary Lynch. 2010. Neuroscience. A Kantian view of space. Science (New York, N.Y.) 328: 1487–1488.
A journal article with 3 authors
Kirn, Thomas J., Brooke A. Jude, and Ronald K. Taylor. 2005. A colonization factor links Vibrio cholerae environmental survival and human infection. Nature 438: 863–866.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Dobbins, Ian G., David M. Schnyer, Mieke Verfaellie, and Daniel L. Schacter. 2004. Cortical activity reductions during repetition priming can result from rapid response learning. Nature 428: 316–319.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Harrison, Andrew. 2016. The Life of D. H. Lawrence. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Arló-Costa, Horacio, Vincent F. Hendricks, and Johan van Benthem, ed. 2016. Readings in Formal Epistemology: Sourcebook. Vol. 1. Springer Graduate Texts in Philosophy. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Chyba, Monique, Thomas Haberkorn, and Robert Jedicke. 2016. Minimum Fuel Round Trip from a $L_2 L 2 Earth-Moon Halo Orbit to Asteroid 2006 RH $_{120}$$ 120. In Recent Advances in Celestial and Space Mechanics, ed. Bernard Bonnard and Monique Chyba, 117–142. Mathematics for Industry. Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy.

Blog post
Davis, Josh. 2017. Attractive Scientists Are Deemed More Interesting But Less Competent By The Public. IFLScience. IFLScience. May 23.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2011. DOD Education Benefits: Further Actions Needed to Improve Oversight of Tuition Assistance Program. GAO-11-389T. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Medina, Leandro Manuel. 2012. Living with Global Shocks: Examining the Responses of Firms and Governments. Doctoral dissertation, Washington, DC: George Washington University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly, Caitlin. 2007. Lesson One: The Price the Contractor Quotes Is an Estimate. New York Times, February 22.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Soper 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Palmer and Lynch 2010; Soper 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Palmer and Lynch 2010)
  • Three or more authors: (Dobbins et al. 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleMedicine, Health Care and Philosophy
AbbreviationMed. Health Care Philos.
ISSN (print)1386-7423
ISSN (online)1572-8633
ScopeHealth Policy
Health(social science)

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