How to format your references using the Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy (Med Health Care and Philos). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Wells, Timothy N. C. 2010. Microbiology. Is the tide turning for new malaria medicines? Science (New York, N.Y.) 329: 1153–1154.
A journal article with 2 authors
Hu, Jie, and Min-Feng Yu. 2010. Meniscus-confined three-dimensional electrodeposition for direct writing of wire bonds. Science (New York, N.Y.) 329: 313–316.
A journal article with 3 authors
Marinova, Margarita M., Oded Aharonson, and Erik Asphaug. 2008. Mega-impact formation of the Mars hemispheric dichotomy. Nature 453: 1216–1219.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Santer, Benjamin D., Stephen Po-Chedley, Mark D. Zelinka, Ivana Cvijanovic, Céline Bonfils, Paul J. Durack, Qiang Fu, et al. 2018. Human influence on the seasonal cycle of tropospheric temperature. Science (New York, N.Y.) 361.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Stahl, Saul, and Catherine Stenson. 2013. Introduction to Topology and Geometry. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Keirsbilck, Bert, Wouter Devroe, and Erik Claes, ed. 2009. Facing the Limits of the Law. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Subashini, P., M. Krishnaveni, and N. Sridevi. 2011. Period Prediction System for Tamil Epigraphical Scripts Based on Support Vector Machine. In Information Systems for Indian Languages: International Conference, ICISIL 2011, Patiala, India, March 9-11, 2011. Proceedings, ed. Chandan Singh, Gurpreet Singh Lehal, Jyotsna Sengupta, Dharam Veer Sharma, and Vishal Goyal, 23–30. Communications in Computer and Information Science. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy.

Blog post
Hale, Tom. 2017. This Spray-On Coating Makes Any Object Unbelievably Black. IFLScience. IFLScience. March 31.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1986. [Comments on NASA Agreement With Firm for Commercial Launch Services]. B-223684. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Smith, Jill M. 2012. (Un)Working Binaries, (Un)Doing Privilege: Narratives of Teachers Who Make Safe Spaces for LGBTQ Students. Doctoral dissertation, Columbus, OH: Ohio State University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Davey, Monica. 2013. Michigan Naming Fiscal Manager To Help Detroit. New York Times, March 1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Katz 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Smaglik 2005; Warnock 2007).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Hu and Yu 2010)
  • Three or more authors: (Bashir et al. 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleMedicine, Health Care and Philosophy
AbbreviationMed. Health Care Philos.
ISSN (print)1386-7423
ISSN (online)1572-8633
ScopeHealth Policy
Health(social science)

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