How to format your references using the Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Zimmerman, Eric. 2004. Recruiters and academia. Nature 431: 1022.
A journal article with 2 authors
Johnston, Keith P., and Parag S. Shah. 2004. Materials science. Making nanoscale materials with supercritical fluids. Science (New York, N.Y.) 303: 482–483.
A journal article with 3 authors
Gardner, Timothy J., Felix Naef, and Fernando Nottebohm. 2005. Freedom and rules: the acquisition and reprogramming of a bird’s learned song. Science (New York, N.Y.) 308: 1046–1049.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Borducchi, Erica N., Jinyan Liu, Joseph P. Nkolola, Anthony M. Cadena, Wen-Han Yu, Stephanie Fischinger, Thomas Broge, et al. 2018. Publisher Correction: Antibody and TLR7 agonist delay viral rebound in SHIV-infected monkeys. Nature.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Center for Chemical Process Safety. 2013. Guidelines for Managing Process Safety Risks During Organizational Change. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Chavet, Cyrille, and Philippe Coussy, ed. 2015. Advanced Hardware Design for Error Correcting Codes. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Asada, Masahiko. 2016. The NPT and the IAEA Additional Protocol. In Nuclear Non-Proliferation in International Law: Volume II - Verification and Compliance, ed. Jonathan L. Black-Branch and Dieter Fleck, 95–130. The Hague: T.M.C. Asser Press.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy.

Blog post
Hale, Tom. 2017. The Video Of Tigers Chasing A Drone Really Isn’t As Cool As You Think. IFLScience. IFLScience. February 24.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1996. Content Analysis: A Methodology for Structuring and Analyzing Written Material. PEMD-10.3.1. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Giles, Cassandra L. 2015. Faculty mentoring of undergraduate students: A qualitative phenomenological study. Doctoral dissertation, Phoenix, AZ: University of Phoenix.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.
New York Times article
Casselman, Ben. 2017. Wealth Grew Broadly Over 3 Years, but Inequality Also Widened. New York Times, September 27.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Zimmerman 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Johnston and Shah 2004; Zimmerman 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Johnston and Shah 2004)
  • Three or more authors: (Borducchi et al. 2018)

About the journal

Full journal titleMedicine, Health Care and Philosophy
AbbreviationMed. Health Care Philos.
ISSN (print)1386-7423
ISSN (online)1572-8633
ScopeHealth Policy
Health(social science)

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