How to format your references using the Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Service, R. F. 2000. CHEMICAL PHYSICS: Magnetic Wires Promise Giant Step for Memory. Science (New York, N.Y.) 290: 2047a–8a.
A journal article with 2 authors
Klein, Michael L., and Wataru Shinoda. 2008. Large-scale molecular dynamics simulations of self-assembling systems. Science (New York, N.Y.) 321: 798–800.
A journal article with 3 authors
Conaway, Ronald C., Christopher S. Brower, and Joan Weliky Conaway. 2002. Emerging roles of ubiquitin in transcription regulation. Science (New York, N.Y.) 296: 1254–1258.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Doyle, Martin W., Emily H. Stanley, David G. Havlick, Mark J. Kaiser, George Steinbach, William L. Graf, Gerald E. Galloway, and J. Adam Riggsbee. 2008. Environmental science. Aging infrastructure and ecosystem restoration. Science (New York, N.Y.) 319: 286–287.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Storey, Ian C., and Arlene Allan. 2008. A Guide to Ancient Greek Drama. Oxford, UK: Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
An edited book
Jajoda, Sushil, and Chandan Mazumdar, ed. 2015. Information Systems Security: 11th International Conference, ICISS 2015, Kolkata, India, December 16-20, 2015. Proceedings. Vol. 9478. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Miele, Frank R. 2013. Principles of Vascular Ultrasound Physics. In Noninvasive Vascular Diagnosis: A Practical Guide to Therapy, ed. Ali F. AbuRahma and Dennis F. Bandyk, 29–43. London: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy.

Blog post
Andrew, Elise. 2015. Low Education Carries a Similar Mortality Risk to Smoking. IFLScience. IFLScience. July 10.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1989. Aviation Safety: Serious Problems Continue to Trouble the Air Traffic Control Work Force. RCED-89-112. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
De La Cruz, Carrie F. 2009. A program evaluation of a literacy initiative for students with moderate to severe disabilities. Doctoral dissertation, Tampa, FL: University of South Florida.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Schwirtz, Michael, and Julie Turkewitz. 2014. Charred Body of Kidnapped Man Is Found on Long Island. New York Times, January 5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Service 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Service 2000; Klein and Shinoda 2008).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Klein and Shinoda 2008)
  • Three or more authors: (Doyle et al. 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleMedicine, Health Care and Philosophy
AbbreviationMed. Health Care Philos.
ISSN (print)1386-7423
ISSN (online)1572-8633
ScopeHealth Policy
Health(social science)

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