How to format your references using the Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Simmons, Nancy B. 2005. Evolution. An Eocene big bang for bats. Science (New York, N.Y.) 307: 527–528.
A journal article with 2 authors
Liebman, Susan W., and James E. Haber. 2013. Retrospective. Fred Sherman (1932-2013). Science (New York, N.Y.) 342: 1059.
A journal article with 3 authors
Armbrecht, Inge, Ivette Perfecto, and John Vandermeer. 2004. Enigmatic biodiversity correlations: ant diversity responds to diverse resources. Science (New York, N.Y.) 304: 284–286.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Tirichine, Leïla, Niels Sandal, Lene H. Madsen, Simona Radutoiu, Anita S. Albrektsen, Shusei Sato, Erika Asamizu, Satoshi Tabata, and Jens Stougaard. 2007. A gain-of-function mutation in a cytokinin receptor triggers spontaneous root nodule organogenesis. Science (New York, N.Y.) 315: 104–107.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Wright, David. 2016. Using Commercial Contracts. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Garrido, Alberto. 2010. Water Footprint and Virtual Water Trade in Spain: Policy Implications. Edited by M. Ramón Llamas, Consuelo Varela-Ortega, Paula Novo, Roberto Rodríguez-Casado, and Maite M. Aldaya. Vol. 35. Natural Resource Management and Policy. New York, NY: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Heath, Lance, Michael James Salinger, Tony Falkland, James Hansen, Kejun Jiang, Yasuko Kameyama, Michio Kishi, et al. 2014. Climate and Security in Asia and the Pacific (Food, Water and Energy). In Climate in Asia and the Pacific: Security, Society and Sustainability, ed. Michael Manton and Linda Anne Stevenson, 129–198. Advances in Global Change Research. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy.

Blog post
Davis, Josh. 2016. Researchers Trace The Mutations That May Have Led To The Zika Outbreak In Brazil. IFLScience. IFLScience. December 14.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1999. Year 2000 Computing Challenge: Federal Government Making Progress But Critical Issues Must Still Be Addressed to Minimize Disruptions. T-AIMD-99-144. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Shan, Jia. 2014. A Theoretical Investigation of Radial Lateral Wells with Shockwave Completion in Shale Gas Reservoirs. Doctoral dissertation, Lafayette, LA: University of Louisiana.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wallace, Nicolle. 2016. The G.O.P. Waits for Trump to Grow Up. New York Times, June 29.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Simmons 2005).
This sentence cites two references (Simmons 2005; Liebman and Haber 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Liebman and Haber 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (Tirichine et al. 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleMedicine, Health Care and Philosophy
AbbreviationMed. Health Care Philos.
ISSN (print)1386-7423
ISSN (online)1572-8633
ScopeHealth Policy
Health(social science)

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