How to format your references using the Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Tsao, Doris. 2006. Eppendorf 2006 winner. A dedicated system for processing faces. Science (New York, N.Y.) 314: 72–73.
A journal article with 2 authors
Haug, Gerald H., and Larry C. Peterson. 2006. Obituary: Nicholas Shackleton (1937-2006). Nature 439: 928.
A journal article with 3 authors
Sheffield, Justin, Eric F. Wood, and Michael L. Roderick. 2012. Little change in global drought over the past 60 years. Nature 491: 435–438.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Krause, S., L. Berbil-Bautista, G. Herzog, M. Bode, and R. Wiesendanger. 2007. Current-induced magnetization switching with a spin-polarized scanning tunneling microscope. Science (New York, N.Y.) 317: 1537–1540.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Center for Chemical Process Safety. 2008. Guidelines for Chemical Transportation Safety, Security, and Risk Management. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Hörner, Wolfgang, Hans Döbert, Botho VON Kopp, and Wolfgang Mitter, ed. 2007. The Education Systems of Europe. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Hazzan, Orit, Tami Lapidot, and Noa Ragonis. 2014. Problem-Solving Strategies. In Guide to Teaching Computer Science: An Activity-Based Approach, ed. Tami Lapidot and Noa Ragonis, 75–93. London: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy.

Blog post
Fang, Janet. 2014. Baby Mammoths So Well Preserved We Can Determine Cause Of Death. IFLScience. IFLScience. July 14.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2016. Advanced Technologies: Strengthened Federal Approach Needed to Help Identify and Mitigate Supply Risks for Critical Raw Materials. GAO-16-699. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Pierre, Ramien R. 2019. A Phenomenological Study of the Boomerang-Employment Experience of Scientists and Engineers. Doctoral dissertation, Washington, DC: George Washington University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Pilon, Mary. 2013. New York City Marathon to Have Tighter Security. New York Times, October 3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Tsao 2006).
This sentence cites two references (Haug and Peterson 2006; Tsao 2006).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Haug and Peterson 2006)
  • Three or more authors: (Krause et al. 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleMedicine, Health Care and Philosophy
AbbreviationMed. Health Care Philos.
ISSN (print)1386-7423
ISSN (online)1572-8633
ScopeHealth Policy
Health(social science)

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