How to format your references using the Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Brumfiel, Geoff. 2007. Quantum leap of faith. Nature 446: 245.
A journal article with 2 authors
Caffrey, Daniel R., and Katherine A. Fitzgerald. 2012. Immunology. Select inflammasome assembly. Science (New York, N.Y.) 336: 420–421.
A journal article with 3 authors
Alitalo, Kari, Tuomas Tammela, and Tatiana V. Petrova. 2005. Lymphangiogenesis in development and human disease. Nature 438: 946–953.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Lee, Jin-Wook, Dae-Yong Son, Tae Kyu Ahn, Hee-Won Shin, In Young Kim, Seong-Ju Hwang, Min Jae Ko, Soohwan Sul, Hyouksoo Han, and Nam-Gyu Park. 2013. Quantum-dot-sensitized solar cell with unprecedentedly high photocurrent. Scientific reports 3: 1050.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Chadwick, Paul. 2008. Person-Based Cognitive Therapy for Distressing Psychosis. West Sussex, England: John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
An edited book
Crescenzi, Pierluigi, Giuseppe Prencipe, and Geppino Pucci, ed. 2007. Fun with Algorithms: 4th International Conference, FUN 2007, Castiglioncello, Italy, June 3-5, 2007. Proceedings. Vol. 4475. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Czajewski, Witold, Paweł Mrówka, and Piotr Olszewski. 2015. Video Processing for Detection and Tracking of Pedestrians and Vehicles at Zebra Crossings. In Tools of Transport Telematics: 15th International Conference on Transport Systems Telematics, TST 2015, Wrocław, Poland, April 15-17, 2015. Selected Papers, ed. Jerzy Mikulski, 34–44. Communications in Computer and Information Science. Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy.

Blog post
Hale, Tom. 2016. The Horrifying Reason For One Woman’s Earache. IFLScience. IFLScience. June 11.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2007. Low-Income and Minority Serving Institutions: Education Has Taken Steps to Improve Monitoring and Assistance, but Further Progress Is Needed. GAO-07-926T. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Donihoo, Katie. 2017. Best Practices and Strategies Used by Church Leaders to Mitigate and Prevent Burnout Among Church Volunteers. Doctoral dissertation, Malibu, CA: Pepperdine University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Chapman, Mary M., and Bill Vlasic. 2016. Volvo Makes Comeback With Return to Its Values. New York Times, January 13.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Brumfiel 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Brumfiel 2007; Caffrey and Fitzgerald 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Caffrey and Fitzgerald 2012)
  • Three or more authors: (Lee et al. 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleMedicine, Health Care and Philosophy
AbbreviationMed. Health Care Philos.
ISSN (print)1386-7423
ISSN (online)1572-8633
ScopeHealth Policy
Health(social science)

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