How to format your references using the Diagnostic Cytopathology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Diagnostic Cytopathology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Turner JA. Chemistry. A nickel finish protects silicon photoanodes for water splitting. Science. 2013 Nov 15;342(6160):811–2.
A journal article with 2 authors
Groisman A, Steinberg V. Efficient mixing at low Reynolds numbers using polymer additives. Nature. 2001 Apr 19;410(6831):905–8.
A journal article with 3 authors
Canfield DE, Poulton SW, Narbonne GM. Late-Neoproterozoic deep-ocean oxygenation and the rise of animal life. Science. 2007 Jan 5;315(5808):92–5.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Begum NA, Kinoshita K, Kakazu N, Muramatsu M, Nagaoka H, Shinkura R, et al. Uracil DNA glycosylase activity is dispensable for immunoglobulin class switch. Science. 2004 Aug 20;305(5687):1160–3.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Stavetski EJ. Managing Hedge Fund Managers. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2009.
An edited book
Sneyd J, editor. Tutorials in Mathematical Biosciences II: Mathematical Modeling of Calcium Dynamics and Signal Transduction. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2005. X, 202 p. 87 illus., 16 illus. in color. (Lecture Notes in Mathematics; vol. 1867).
A chapter in an edited book
Ashbee HR, Bond R. Malassezia Species and Immunity: Host–Pathogen Interactions. In: Boekhout T, Mayser P, Guého-Kellermann E, Velegraki A, editors. Malassezia and the Skin: Science and Clinical Practice. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2010. p. 139–73.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Diagnostic Cytopathology.

Blog post
Andrew E. Amazing Photographs Of Alcoholic Drinks Under The Microscope [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2014 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Federal Communications Commission: Extending Wireless Telecommunications Services to Tribal Lands. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2000 Aug. Report No.: OGC-00-55.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Swan C. Arts participation and career preparedness: A pragmatic approach to assessing arts benefits [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Shpigel B. Missing Tournament, Indiana Fires Coach. New York Times. 2017 Mar 16;B10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1,2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleDiagnostic Cytopathology
AbbreviationDiagn. Cytopathol.
ISSN (print)8755-1039
ISSN (online)1097-0339
ScopeGeneral Medicine
Pathology and Forensic Medicine

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