How to format your references using the Diagnostic Cytopathology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Diagnostic Cytopathology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Russell TP. Surface-responsive materials. Science. 2002 Aug 9;297(5583):964–7.
A journal article with 2 authors
Ellis J, Wilson I. New physics with the Compact Linear Collider. Nature. 2001 Jan 18;409(6818):431–5.
A journal article with 3 authors
Vergassola M, Villermaux E, Shraiman BI. “Infotaxis” as a strategy for searching without gradients. Nature. 2007 Jan 25;445(7126):406–9.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
D’Ardenne K, McClure SM, Nystrom LE, Cohen JD. BOLD responses reflecting dopaminergic signals in the human ventral tegmental area. Science. 2008 Feb 29;319(5867):1264–7.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bartoszyǹski R, Niewiadomska-Bugaj M. Probability and Statistical Inference, Second Edition. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2007.
An edited book
Ignatiev AA. Heteromagnetic Microelectronics: Microsystems of Active Type. Lyashenko AV, editor. New York, NY: Springer; 2010. XXIV, 506 p.
A chapter in an edited book
Müller S, van Roermund T, Steigemann M. Communication Beyond Vehicles—Road to Automated Driving. In: Schulze T, Müller B, Meyer G, editors. Advanced Microsystems for Automotive Applications 2016: Smart Systems for the Automobile of the Future. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016. p. 55–64. (Lecture Notes in Mobility).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Diagnostic Cytopathology.

Blog post
Hale T. iPhone 7 Leaks: Apple Expert Forecasts What Features To Expect On New iPhone [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Social Security: Improved Telephone Accessibility Would Better Serve the Public. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1986 Aug. Report No.: HRD-86-85.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Coughenour BM. Photovoltaic concentrator optical system design: Solar energy engineering from physics to field [Doctoral dissertation]. [Tucson, AZ]: University of Arizona; 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kishkovsky S. A TV Extravaganza of Music! Comedy! Militia! K.G.B.! New York Times. 2005 Dec 23;A4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1,2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleDiagnostic Cytopathology
AbbreviationDiagn. Cytopathol.
ISSN (print)8755-1039
ISSN (online)1097-0339
ScopeGeneral Medicine
Pathology and Forensic Medicine

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