How to format your references using the Diagnostic Cytopathology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Diagnostic Cytopathology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Vereecken L. Chemistry. Lifting the veil on an old mystery. Science. 2013 Apr 12;340(6129):154–5.
A journal article with 2 authors
Sander PM, Clauss M. Paleontology. Sauropod gigantism. Science. 2008 Oct 10;322(5899):200–1.
A journal article with 3 authors
Joseph AC, Joseph SE, Chen G. Cross-border portfolio investment networks and indicators for financial crises. Sci Rep. 2014 Feb 10;4:3991.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Abram NJ, Gagan MK, Liu Z, Hantoro WS, McCulloch MT, Suwargadi BW. Seasonal characteristics of the Indian Ocean Dipole during the Holocene epoch. Nature. 2007 Jan 18;445(7125):299–302.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Sugirtharajah RS. Exploring Postcolonial Biblical Criticism. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell; 2011.
An edited book
Grothaus M. Taking Your iPad to the Max, iOS 5 Edition. Sadun E, editor. Berkeley, CA: Apress; 2012. XIII, 520 p.
A chapter in an edited book
Rabe KM, Ghosez P. First-Principles Studies of Ferroelectric Oxides. In: Rabe KM, Ahn CH, Triscone J-M, editors. Physics of Ferroelectrics: A Modern Perspective. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2007. p. 117–74. (Topics in Applied Physics).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Diagnostic Cytopathology.

Blog post
Andrew E. Quadriplegic Man Uses Thoughts To Move His Limb [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2014 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. U.S. Citizens Studying Medicine Abroad. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1985 Dec. Report No.: 128595.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Jones G. The impact of song on repeated reading: An examination of comprehension, fluency, and engagement with texts of Hispanic second graders in a Title I urban school [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Lyman R, Walsh MW. Task Force Report Urges Municipalities to Stop Hiding Fiscal Troubles. New York Times. 2014 Jan 15;A14.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1,2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleDiagnostic Cytopathology
AbbreviationDiagn. Cytopathol.
ISSN (print)8755-1039
ISSN (online)1097-0339
ScopeGeneral Medicine
Pathology and Forensic Medicine

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