How to format your references using the Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Ottino JM. Engineering complex systems. Nature. 2004 Jan 29;427(6973):399.
A journal article with 2 authors
Čorić I, List B. Asymmetric spiroacetalization catalysed by confined Brønsted acids. Nature. 2012 Mar 14;483(7389):315–9.
A journal article with 3 authors
Ferrand Y, Crump MP, Davis AP. A synthetic lectin analog for biomimetic disaccharide recognition. Science. 2007 Oct 26;318(5850):619–22.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Rothschild BM, Mitchell ED, Moore MJ, Early GA. What Causes Lesions in Sperm Whale Bones? Science. 2005 Apr 29;308(5722):631c–2c.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Gage LJ. Hand-Rearing Wild and Domestic Mammals. Oxford, UK: Blackwell Publishing Ltd; 2008.
An edited book
Klapp J, Cervantes-Cota JL, Chávez Alcalá JF, editors. Towards a Cleaner Planet: Energy for the Future. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2007. XXIII, 419 p. (Environmental Science and Engineering, Environmental Science).
A chapter in an edited book
Sharland M, Hammeke TA. Steamrolled: Sports-Related Concussions. In: Apps JN, Newby RF, Roberts LW, editors. Pediatric Neuropsychology Case Studies: From the Exceptional to the Commonplace. New York, NY: Springer; 2010. p. 43–9.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Medicine.

Blog post
Carpineti A. For The First Time We Have Measured The Temperature Fluctuations Around A Black Hole [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2017 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Management Guidelines for Cost Accounting and Cost Control for ADP Systems Design and Development Activities. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1979 Nov. Report No.: 094325.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
McCorvey ZJ. Addressing disruptive behaviors in an After School Program classroom: The effects of the Daily Behavior Report Card [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Dominus I by S. ‘My Moves Speak for Themselves.’ New York Times. 2014 Jan 24;MM10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleMedicine
AbbreviationMedicine (Abingdon)
ISSN (print)1357-3039
ScopeGeneral Medicine

Other styles