How to format your references using the Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Boyce W. Earth monitoring: vigilance is not enough. Nature. 2007 Dec 6;450(7171):791–2.
A journal article with 2 authors
Gomes CP, Selman B. Computer science. Satisfied with physics. Science. 2002 Aug 2;297(5582):784–5.
A journal article with 3 authors
Mastrobuono-Battisti A, Perets HB, Raymond SN. A primordial origin for the compositional similarity between the Earth and the Moon. Nature. 2015 Apr 9;520(7546):212–5.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Wang W, Tang M, Yang H, Younghae Do, Lai YC, Lee G. Asymmetrically interacting spreading dynamics on complex layered networks. Sci Rep. 2014 May 29;4:5097.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Schepers U. RNA Interference in Practice. Weinheim, FRG: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA; 2004.
An edited book
Rahwan I, Parsons S, Reed C, editors. Argumentation in Multi-Agent Systems: 4th International Workshop, ArgMAS 2007, Honolulu, HI, USA, May 15, 2007, Revised Selected and Invited Papers. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2008. X, 235 p. (Lecture Notes in Computer Science; vol. 4946).
A chapter in an edited book
Huang J, Pandit C, Meyn SP, Médard M, Veeravalli V. Entropy, Inference, and Channel Coding. In: Agrawal P, Fleming PJ, Zhang L, Andrews DM, Yin G, editors. Wireless Communications. New York, NY: Springer; 2007. p. 99–124. (Arnold DN, Scheel A, editors. The IMA Volumes in Mathematics and its Applications).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Medicine.

Blog post
Luntz S. A Rope Test Could Save Us From Monkey Diseases. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Administration of the Head Start Program by the Mountain Community Action Program, Inc. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1972 Aug. Report No.: B-164031(1).

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Whitehead CF. Teacher perceptions of the effects of parentification on social interactions in the school setting [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Cooper M, Walsh MW. Distressed Cities Weigh Bold Tactics In a New Fiscal Era. New York Times. 2012 Apr 1;A19.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleMedicine
AbbreviationMedicine (Abingdon)
ISSN (print)1357-3039
ScopeGeneral Medicine

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