How to format your references using the Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Dalton R. EarthScope. Deep thoughts. Nature. 2000 May 25;405(6785):390–2.
A journal article with 2 authors
Janvier P, Arsenault M. Palaeobiology: calcification of early vertebrate cartilage. Nature. 2002 Jun 6;417(6889):609.
A journal article with 3 authors
O’D Alexander CM, Boss AP, Carlson RW. The early evolution of the inner solar system: a meteoritic perspective. Science. 2001 Jul 6;293(5527):64–8.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Dinsmore AD, Hsu MF, Nikolaides MG, Marquez M, Bausch AR, Weitz DA. Colloidosomes: selectively permeable capsules composed of colloidal particles. Science. 2002 Nov 1;298(5595):1006–9.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Garber R. BIM Design. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2014.
An edited book
Schreiner B, Hassan R, editors. Transforming Water Management in South Africa: Designing and Implementing a New Policy Framework. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2011. XXVIII, 278 p. (Global Issues in Water Policy; vol. 2).
A chapter in an edited book
Kar-Narayan S, Crossley S, Mathur ND. Electrocaloric Multilayer Capacitors. In: Correia T, Zhang Q, editors. Electrocaloric Materials: New Generation of Coolers. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2014. p. 91–105. (Engineering Materials).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Medicine.

Blog post
O`Callaghan J. NASA’s Curiosity Rover Spots Metallic Object On Mars [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2017 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Airline Competition: Fare and Service Changes at St. Louis Since the TWA-Ozark Merger. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1988 Sep. Report No.: RCED-88-217BR.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Liza JS. Mentors’ perceptions of bullying in middle and high school settings [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kercher S. First Tinder, Then Marriage? New York Times. 2017 Apr 19;D5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleMedicine
AbbreviationMedicine (Abingdon)
ISSN (print)1357-3039
ScopeGeneral Medicine

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