How to format your references using the Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1.
Bortman H. Requiem for an observatory. Nature. 2000 Jun 1;405(6786):504–6.
A journal article with 2 authors
1.
Simmons SF, Brown KL. Gold in magmatic hydrothermal solutions and the rapid formation of a giant ore deposit. Science. 2006 Oct 13;314(5797):288–91.
A journal article with 3 authors
1.
Martin AC, Kaschube M, Wieschaus EF. Pulsed contractions of an actin-myosin network drive apical constriction. Nature. 2009 Jan 22;457(7228):495–9.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1.
Huseynova S, Panakhova N, Orujova P, Hasanov S, Guliyev M, Orujov A. Elevated levels of serum sICAM-1 in asphyxiated low birth weight newborns. Sci Rep. 2014 Oct 31;4:6850.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1.
Wells R. Global Credit Management. Oxford, UK: John Wiley & Sons Ltd; 2004.
An edited book
1.
Hamblen JO. Rapid Prototyping of Digital Systems. Hall TS, Furman MD, editors. Boston, MA: Springer US; 2008. XVII, 411 p.
A chapter in an edited book
1.
Jampani R, Üngör A. Construction of Sparse Well-spaced Point Sets for Quality Tetrahedralizations. In: Brewer ML, Marcum D, editors. Proceedings of the 16th International Meshing Roundtable. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2008. p. 63–80.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Medicine.

Blog post
1.
Carpineti A. What Would You See If You Turned Your Headlights On While Driving A Car At Lightspeed? [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from: https://www.iflscience.com/physics/what-would-you-see-if-you-turned-your-headlights-on-while-driving-a-car-at-lightspeed/

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1.
Government Accountability Office. Federally Funded Research: Controlling Inappropriate Access to Research Results. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1993 Mar. Report No.: T-RCED-93-19.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1.
France KA. Triadic Supervision: An Exploration of Supervisors’ Perceptions, Experiences and Practices [Doctoral dissertation]. [Washington, DC]: George Washington University; 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1.
Pilon M, Belson K. Two Sprinters Agree to Runoff For Olympic Spot. New York Times. 2012 Jul 2;D1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleMedicine
AbbreviationMedicine (Abingdon)
ISSN (print)1357-3039
ScopeGeneral Medicine

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