How to format your references using the Medicina Fluminensis citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Medicina Fluminensis. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Villeval MC. Behavioural economics: Professional identity can increase dishonesty. Nature. 2014 Dec 4;516(7529):48–9.
A journal article with 2 authors
Gaillardet J, Galy A. Atmospheric science. Himalaya--carbon sink or source? Science. 2008 Jun 27;320(5884):1727–8.
A journal article with 3 authors
Erickson B, Singh R, Winters P. Synthetic biology: regulating industry uses of new biotechnologies. Science. 2011 Sep 2;333(6047):1254–6.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Motoyama EM, Yu G, Vishik IM, Vajk OP, Mang PK, Greven M. Spin correlations in the electron-doped high-transition-temperature superconductor Nd2-xCexCuO4+/-delta. Nature. 2007 Jan 11;445(7124):186–9.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Pouly M, Kohlas J. Generic Inference. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2011.
An edited book
Yu MH. Computational Plasticity: With Emphasis on the Application of the Unified Strength Theory. Li JC, editor. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2012. XXIII, 529 p. 433 illus., 133 illus. in color. (Advanced Topics in Science and Technology in China).
A chapter in an edited book
Lyons AC, Mondragon AEC, Piller F, Poler R. Network Collaboration: Vertical and Horizontal Partnerships. In: Coronado Mondragon AE, Piller F, Poler R, editors. Customer-Driven Supply Chains: From Glass Pipelines to Open Innovation Networks. London: Springer; 2012. p. 95–111. (Decision Engineering).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Medicina Fluminensis.

Blog post
Andrew E. The Apple Car Will Be Really Different … If It Exists. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. ADP Management Controls: Farmers Home Administration Can Improve Reporting of Weaknesses. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1988 Jul. Report No.: IMTEC-88-38.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Wheatley BA. Leadership styles of healthcare executives: Comparisons of transformational, transactional, and passive-avoidant styles [Doctoral dissertation]. [Scottsdale, AZ]: Northcentral University; 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Stewart JB. Fossil Fuel Stocks Divide a Village. New York Times. 2016 Dec 8;B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleMedicina Fluminensis
AbbreviationMed. Flum.
ISSN (print)0025-7729
ScopeGeneral Medicine

Other styles