How to format your references using the Medicina Fluminensis citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Medicina Fluminensis. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Roll-Mecak A. Botany. Shining light at microtubule crossroads. Science. 2013 Dec 6;342(6163):1180–1.
A journal article with 2 authors
Sugita M, Shiba Y. Genetic tracing shows segregation of taste neuronal circuitries for bitter and sweet. Science. 2005 Jul 29;309(5735):781–5.
A journal article with 3 authors
Parvanov ED, Petkov PM, Paigen K. Prdm9 controls activation of mammalian recombination hotspots. Science. 2010 Feb 12;327(5967):835.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Wang X, Liao Q, Lu X, Li H, Xu Z, Fu H. Shape-engineering of self-assembled organic single microcrystal as optical microresonator for laser applications. Sci Rep. 2014 Nov 12;4:7011.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kaplan W. Maxima and Minima with Applications. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 1998.
An edited book
Veronese FM, editor. PEGylated Protein Drugs: Basic Science and Clinical Applications. Basel: Birkhäuser; 2009. IX, 290 p. (Milestones in Drug Therapy).
A chapter in an edited book
Sun J, Zhou W, Nawaz Z, Slingerland JM. Cross Talk Between ERα and Src Signaling and Its Relevance to ER Status and Hormone Responsiveness. In: Castoria G, Migliaccio A, editors. Advances in Rapid Sex-Steroid Action: New Challenges and New Chances in Breast and Prostate Cancers. New York, NY: Springer; 2012. p. 61–78.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Medicina Fluminensis.

Blog post
Andrew E. Dark Energy Survey Reveals 8 Dwarf Galaxies Orbiting The Milky Way. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Information Technology: HUD Needs to Address Significant Weaknesses in Its Cost Estimating Practices. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2017 Feb. Report No.: GAO-17-281.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Palmer CM. Intramural scheduling time preferences to increase student participation [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Walsh MW. Contractor’s Work Faulted At U.S. Pension Guarantor. New York Times. 2011 Dec 2;B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleMedicina Fluminensis
AbbreviationMed. Flum.
ISSN (print)0025-7729
ScopeGeneral Medicine

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