How to format your references using the Medicina Fluminensis citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Medicina Fluminensis. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Polak T. Help others--and help your career. Science. 2015 Oct 9;350(6257):246.
A journal article with 2 authors
Gold JI, Shadlen MN. Representation of a perceptual decision in developing oculomotor commands. Nature. 2000 Mar 23;404(6776):390–4.
A journal article with 3 authors
Lowe SW, Cepero E, Evan G. Intrinsic tumour suppression. Nature. 2004 Nov 18;432(7015):307–15.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Henry MR, Cho MK, Weaver MA, Merz JF. Genetics. DNA patenting and licensing. Science. 2002 Aug 23;297(5585):1279.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Knuth E. Trading Between the Lines. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2011.
An edited book
Bockstael NE. Environmental and Resource Valuation with Revealed Preferences: A Theoretical Guide to Empirical Models. McConnell KE, editor. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2007. XVI, 376 p. (The Economics of Non-Market Goods and Resources; vol. 7).
A chapter in an edited book
Kuo C-H, Hung C-H. Genetics and Epigenetic Regulation in Allergic Diseases. In: Tao A, Raz E, editors. Allergy Bioinformatics. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2015. p. 49–65. (Translational Bioinformatics).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Medicina Fluminensis.

Blog post
Andrew E. Catalog Of Life’s Colors Created To Assist The Hunt For Extraterrestrial Life [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Metropolitan Area Acquisition (MAA) Implementation Issues. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2001 Jul. Report No.: GAO-01-958R.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Hoang V. Software maintenance: A program slicer using cross referencer [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
St. John Kelly E. The Storefront Psychic: A Peek Inside. New York Times. 1995 May 14;131.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleMedicina Fluminensis
AbbreviationMed. Flum.
ISSN (print)0025-7729
ScopeGeneral Medicine

Other styles