How to format your references using the Medicina Fluminensis citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Medicina Fluminensis. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Chiang Y-M. Materials science. Building a better battery. Science. 2010 Dec 10;330(6010):1485–6.
A journal article with 2 authors
Falk A, Szech N. Morals and markets. Science. 2013 May 10;340(6133):707–11.
A journal article with 3 authors
Shema R, Sacktor TC, Dudai Y. Rapid erasure of long-term memory associations in the cortex by an inhibitor of PKM zeta. Science. 2007 Aug 17;317(5840):951–3.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Yang R, Zhu C, Meng J, Huo Z, Cheng M, Liu D, et al. Isolated nanographene crystals for nano-floating gate in charge trapping memory. Sci Rep. 2013;3:2126.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Hase Y. Handbook of Power Systems Engineering with Power Electronics Applications. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2012.
An edited book
Tan K-Y, editor. Transdisciplinary Perioperative Care in Colorectal Surgery: An Integrative Approach. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2015. VIII, 269 p. 73 illus., 62 illus. in color.
A chapter in an edited book
Jonathan-Zamir T, Weisburd D, Hasisi B. How Do Majority Communities View the Potential Costs of Policing Terrorism? In: Weisburd D, Hasisi B, editors. Policing Terrorism, Crime Control, and Police-Community Relations: Learning from the Israeli Experience. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2014. p. 99–115.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Medicina Fluminensis.

Blog post
Davis J. Gene Variants Linked to Autism May Have Been Positively Selected For. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2017.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Development and the Ability of the Department of the Interior To Administer Such a Program. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1975 Jul. Report No.: 096973.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Seefried VI. Timely and accurate decision-making during U.S. public health emergencies: Incremental Dynamic Decision-making (IDD) for public health emergency response [Doctoral dissertation]. [Washington, DC]: George Washington University; 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
(nyt) SK. World Briefing | Europe: Moldova: Opposition Politician Missing. New York Times. 2002 Mar 27;A6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleMedicina Fluminensis
AbbreviationMed. Flum.
ISSN (print)0025-7729
ScopeGeneral Medicine

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