How to format your references using the Medicina Fluminensis citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Medicina Fluminensis. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Schneider S. The worst-case scenario. Nature. 2009 Apr 30;458(7242):1104–5.
A journal article with 2 authors
Navarro M, Gull K. A pol I transcriptional body associated with VSG mono-allelic expression in Trypanosoma brucei. Nature. 2001 Dec 13;414(6865):759–63.
A journal article with 3 authors
Ottosen S, Herrera FJ, Triezenberg SJ. Transcription. Proteasome parts at gene promoters. Science. 2002 Apr 19;296(5567):479–81.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Zhu X, Feng C, Ye Z, Chen Y, Li G. Fabrication of magneto-controlled moveable architecture to develop reusable electrochemical biosensors. Sci Rep. 2014 Feb 25;4:4169.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Saliba AJ, Corona JC, Johnson KE. Option Spread Strategies. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2010.
An edited book
Punter A. Psychometric Framework for Modeling Parental Involvement and Reading Literacy. Glas CAW, Meelissen MRM, editors. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016. XI, 97 p. 1 illus. (IEA Research for Education, A Series of In-depth Analyses Based on Data of the International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement (IEA); vol. 1).
A chapter in an edited book
Boccaccio A, Brunelli R, Lamberti L, Papi M, Parasassi T, De Spirito M, et al. A Preliminary Investigation on the Mechanical Behavior of Umbilical Cord With Moiré Techniques. In: Jin H, Sciammarella C, Yoshida S, Lamberti L, editors. Advancement of Optical Methods in Experimental Mechanics, Volume 3: Proceedings of the 2014 Annual Conference on Experimental and Applied Mechanics. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015. p. 47–52. (Conference Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Mechanics Series).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Medicina Fluminensis.

Blog post
Carpineti A. Astronomers Spot Closest Star In Orbit Around A Black Hole [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2017 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Telecommunications: Initiatives Taken by Three States to Promote Increased Access and Investment. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1996 Mar. Report No.: RCED-96-68.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Green EI. Caregiver wellness: An inquiry of health risks among frontline direct caregivers of the elderly and disabled [Doctoral dissertation]. [Minneapolis, MN]: Capella University; 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Urbina I. Tricked While on Land, Abused or Killed at Sea. New York Times. 2015 Nov 9;A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleMedicina Fluminensis
AbbreviationMed. Flum.
ISSN (print)0025-7729
ScopeGeneral Medicine

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