How to format your references using the Journal of the Association for Vascular Access citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of the Association for Vascular Access. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Tyson JJ. Bringing cartoons to life. Nature. 2007;445(7130):823.
A journal article with 2 authors
Kosten S, Lacerot G. Life in science. It takes a village. Science. 2009;324(5932):1265.
A journal article with 3 authors
Thompson JK, Rainville S, Pritchard DE. Cyclotron frequency shifts arising from polarization forces. Nature. 2004;430(6995):58-61.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Hale P, Makgoba MW, Merson MH, et al. Mission now possible for AIDS fund. Nature. 2001;412(6844):271-272.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Vagelli AA. The Banggai Cardinalfish. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2011.
An edited book
Gooßen LJ, ed. Inventing Reactions. Vol 44. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
Benavides-Serrato M, Borrero-Pérez GH, Cantera K JR, Cohen-Rengifo M, Neira R. Echinoderms of Colombia. In: Alvarado JJ, Solis-Marin FA, eds. Echinoderm Research and Diversity in Latin America. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2013:145-182.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of the Association for Vascular Access.

Blog post
Hamilton K. What’s The Benefit In Making Human-Animal Hybrids? IFLScience. Published February 3, 2017. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Perkins Student Loans: Options That Could Make the Program More Financially Independent. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1991.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Vatankhah I. Purification of Industrial Grade Urea for diesel exhaust pollution reduction. 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Pilon M. Tarnish on the Torch. New York Times. July 24, 2016:BR11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of the Association for Vascular Access
ISSN (print)1552-8855
ScopeMedicine (miscellaneous)

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