How to format your references using the Journal of the Association for Vascular Access citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of the Association for Vascular Access. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Roos DS. Genetics. Themes and variations in apicomplexan parasite biology. Science. 2005;309(5731):72-73.
A journal article with 2 authors
Olson MV, Varki A. Genomics. The chimpanzee genome--a bittersweet celebration. Science. 2004;305(5681):191-192.
A journal article with 3 authors
Hwang HW, Wentzel EA, Mendell JT. A hexanucleotide element directs microRNA nuclear import. Science. 2007;315(5808):97-100.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Naruse M, Tani T, Yasuda H, Tate N, Ohtsu M, Naya M. Randomness in highly reflective silver nanoparticles and their localized optical fields. Sci Rep. 2014;4:6077.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Chu PP. RTL Hardware Design Using VHDL. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2006.
An edited book
Kirylo JD, ed. A Critical Pedagogy of Resistance: 34 Pedagogues We Need to Know. SensePublishers; 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
Savenkov D, Braslavski P, Lebedev M. Search Snippet Evaluation at Yandex: Lessons Learned and Future Directions. In: Forner P, Gonzalo J, Kekäläinen J, Lalmas M, Rijke M de, eds. Multilingual and Multimodal Information Access Evaluation: Second International Conference of the Cross-Language Evaluation Forum, CLEF 2011, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, September 19-22, 2011. Proceedings. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer; 2011:14-25.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of the Association for Vascular Access.

Blog post
Davis J. Scientists Shocked To Discover Eukaryote With NO Mitochondria. IFLScience. Published May 13, 2016. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Higher Education: Ensuring Quality Education From Proprietary Institutions. U.S. Government Printing Office; 1996.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Nichol KP. English Language Learners and Gifted Identification: Exploring the Perceptions of Teachers and Parents. Doctoral dissertation. Northcentral University; 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Billard M. Jodi Arnold Expands Her Empire. New York Times. July 22, 2010:E5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of the Association for Vascular Access
ISSN (print)1552-8855
ScopeMedicine (miscellaneous)

Other styles